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      Applications of daunorubicin-loaded PLGA-PLL-PEG-Tf nanoparticles in hematologic malignancies: an in vitro and in vivo evaluation

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          With the development of drug delivery, novel tools and technological approaches have captured the attention of researchers in recent years. Several target drug delivery systems (DDSs) including nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed as an important strategy to deliver classical medicine.


          The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of novel daunorubicin (DNR)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-poly- l-lysine-polyethylene glycol-transferrin (Tf) nanoparticles (DNR-loaded NPs) in hematologic malignancies in vitro and in vivo.

          Materials and methods

          DNR-loaded NPs were prepared by the modified double-emulsion solvent evaporation/diffusion method, and its microscopic form was observed under scanning electron microscope. Intracellular distribution of DNR was directly detected by fluorescence microscopy. After establishment of a tumor xenograft model by injecting K562 cells into the left leg of nude mice, the therapeutic effect of the DNR-loaded NPs on the growth of tumors was measured by calculating the tumor size, and the relative expression of Caspase-3 protein was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Furthermore, intracellular concentration of DNR and the extent of cell apoptosis in primary leukemia cells were quantified by flow cytometry.


          DNR-loaded NPs had a spherical shape of about 180 nm in diameter. DNR-loaded NP group showed a significant enhancement of cellular uptake in K562 cells compared with DNR group. Tumor inhibition rate was higher in DNR-loaded NP group in comparison with DNR group, and the relative expression of Caspase-3 protein was upregulated in DNR-loaded NP group compared with DNR group. Furthermore, DNR-loaded NPs obviously increased intracellular concentration of DNR in primary leukemia cells compared with DNR group, but there was no significant difference in primary cell apoptosis between the two groups. These findings suggest that the novel NP DDS can enhance the performance of conventional antitumor drugs and may be suitable for further application in the treatment of hematologic malignancies.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Drug targeting to tumors: principles, pitfalls and (pre-) clinical progress.

          Many different systems and strategies have been evaluated for drug targeting to tumors over the years. Routinely used systems include liposomes, polymers, micelles, nanoparticles and antibodies, and examples of strategies are passive drug targeting, active drug targeting to cancer cells, active drug targeting to endothelial cells and triggered drug delivery. Significant progress has been made in this area of research both at the preclinical and at the clinical level, and a number of (primarily passively tumor-targeted) nanomedicine formulations have been approved for clinical use. Significant progress has also been made with regard to better understanding the (patho-) physiological principles of drug targeting to tumors. This has led to the identification of several important pitfalls in tumor-targeted drug delivery, including I) overinterpretation of the EPR effect; II) poor tumor and tissue penetration of nanomedicines; III) misunderstanding of the potential usefulness of active drug targeting; IV) irrational formulation design, based on materials which are too complex and not broadly applicable; V) insufficient incorporation of nanomedicine formulations in clinically relevant combination regimens; VI) negligence of the notion that the highest medical need relates to metastasis, and not to solid tumor treatment; VII) insufficient integration of non-invasive imaging techniques and theranostics, which could be used to personalize nanomedicine-based therapeutic interventions; and VIII) lack of (efficacy analyses in) proper animal models, which are physiologically more relevant and more predictive for the clinical situation. These insights strongly suggest that besides making ever more nanomedicine formulations, future efforts should also address some of the conceptual drawbacks of drug targeting to tumors, and that strategies should be developed to overcome these shortcomings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            Paul Ehrlich's magic bullet concept: 100 years of progress.

            Exceptional advances in molecular biology and genetic research have expedited cancer drug development tremendously. The declared paradigm is the development of 'personalized and tailored drugs' that precisely target the specific molecular defects of a cancer patient. It is therefore appropriate to revisit the intellectual foundations of the development of such agents, as many have shown great clinical success. One hundred years ago, Paul Ehrlich, the founder of chemotherapy, received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. His postulate of creating 'magic bullets' for use in the fight against human diseases inspired generations of scientists to devise powerful molecular cancer therapeutics.
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              Nanotechnology in cancer therapeutics: bioconjugated nanoparticles for drug delivery.

              Nanotechnology refers to the interactions of cellular and molecular components and engineered materials-typically, clusters of atoms, molecules, and molecular fragments into incredibly small particles-between 1 and 100 nm. Nanometer-sized particles have novel optical, electronic, and structural properties that are not available either in individual molecules or bulk solids. The concept of nanoscale devices has led to the development of biodegradable self-assembled nanoparticles, which are being engineered for the targeted delivery of anticancer drugs and imaging contrast agents. Nanoconstructs such as these should serve as customizable, targeted drug delivery vehicles capable of ferrying large doses of chemotherapeutic agents or therapeutic genes into malignant cells while sparing healthy cells. Such "smart" multifunctional nanodevices hold out the possibility of radically changing the practice of oncology, allowing easy detection and then followed by effective targeted therapeutics at the earliest stages of the disease. In this article, we briefly discuss the use of bioconjugated nanoparticles for the delivery and targeting of anticancer drugs.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                08 April 2019
                : 13
                : 1107-1115
                Department of Hematology and Oncology, Key Medical Disciplines of Jiangsu Province, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, People’s Republic of China, cba8888@ 123456hotmail.com
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Baoan Chen, Department of Hematology and Oncology, Key Medical Disciplines of Jiangsu Province, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, DingJiaQiao 87, Nanjing 210009, People’s Republic of China, Email cba8888@ 123456hotmail.com
                © 2019 Bao et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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