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      Complex management of a patient with refractory primary erythromelalgia lacking a SCN9A mutation

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          Abstract

          A 41-year-old woman presented with burning and erythema in her extremities triggered by warmth and activity, which was relieved by applying ice. Extensive workup was consistent with adult-onset primary erythromelalgia (EM). Several pharmacological treatments were tried including local anesthetics, capsaicin, ziconotide, and dantrolene, all providing 24–48 hours of relief followed by symptom flare. Interventional therapies, including peripheral and sympathetic ganglion blocks, also failed. Thus far, clonidine and ketamine have been the only effective agents for our patient. Genetic testing was negative for an EM-associated mutation in the SCN9A gene, encoding the Na V1.7 sodium channel, suggesting a mutation in an alternate gene.

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          Most cited references 12

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          The Na(V)1.7 sodium channel: from molecule to man.

          The voltage-gated sodium channel Na(V)1.7 is preferentially expressed in peripheral somatic and visceral sensory neurons, olfactory sensory neurons and sympathetic ganglion neurons. Na(V)1.7 accumulates at nerve fibre endings and amplifies small subthreshold depolarizations, poising it to act as a threshold channel that regulates excitability. Genetic and functional studies have added to the evidence that Na(V)1.7 is a major contributor to pain signalling in humans, and homology modelling based on crystal structures of ion channels suggests an atomic-level structural basis for the altered gating of mutant Na(V)1.7 that causes pain.
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            Outpatient intravenous ketamine for the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome: a double-blind placebo controlled study.

            Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a severe chronic pain condition that most often develops following trauma. The pathophysiology of CRPS is not known but both clinical and experimental evidence demonstrate the important of the NMDA receptor and glial activation in its induction and maintenance. Ketamine is the most potent clinically available safe NMDA antagonist that has a well established role in the treatment of acute and chronic pain. This randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous ketamine in the treatment of CRPS. Before treatment, after informed consent was obtained, each subject was randomized into a ketamine or a placebo infusion group. Study subjects were evaluated for at least 2 weeks prior to treatment and for 3 months following treatment. All subjects were infused intravenously with normal saline with or without ketamine for 4h (25ml/h) daily for 10 days. The maximum ketamine infusion rate was 0.35mg/kg/h, not to exceed 25mg/h over a 4h period. Subjects in both the ketamine and placebo groups were administered clonidine and versed. This study showed that intravenous ketamine administered in an outpatient setting resulted in statistically significant (p<0.05) reductions in many pain parameters. It also showed that subjects in our placebo group demonstrated no treatment effect in any parameter. The results of this study warrant a larger randomized placebo controlled trial using higher doses of ketamine and a longer follow-up period.
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              A novel Nav1.7 mutation producing carbamazepine-responsive erythromelalgia.

              Human and animal studies have shown that Na(v)1.7 sodium channels, which are preferentially expressed within nociceptors and sympathetic neurons, play a major role in inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Inherited erythromelalgia (IEM) has been linked to gain-of-function mutations of Na(v)1.7. We now report a novel mutation (V400M) in a three-generation Canadian family in which pain is relieved by carbamazepine (CBZ). We extracted genomic DNA from blood samples of eight members of the family, and the sequence of SCN9A coding exons was compared with the reference Na(v)1.7 complementary DNA. Wild-type Na(v)1.7 and V400M cell lines were then analyzed using whole-cell patch-clamp recording for changes in activation, deactivation, steady-state inactivation, and ramp currents. Whole-cell patch-clamp studies of V400M demonstrate changes in activation, deactivation, steady-state inactivation, and ramp currents that can produce dorsal root ganglia neuron hyperexcitability that underlies pain in these patients. We show that CBZ, at concentrations in the human therapeutic range, normalizes the voltage dependence of activation and inactivation of this inherited erythromelalgia mutation in Na(v)1.7 but does not affect these parameters in wild-type Na(v)1.7. Our results demonstrate a normalizing effect of CBZ on mutant Na(v)1.7 channels in this kindred with CBZ-responsive inherited erythromelalgia. The selective effect of CBZ on the mutant Na(v)1.7 channel appears to explain the ameliorative response to treatment in this kindred. Our results suggest that functional expression and pharmacological studies may provide mechanistic insights into hereditary painful disorders.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2017
                27 April 2017
                : 10
                : 973-977
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Banner University Medical Center, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ
                [2 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative & Pain Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto
                [3 ]Blade Therapeutics, South San Francisco, CA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Vivianne L Tawfik, Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative & Pain Medicine, Stanford University, 450 Broadway Street, Pavilion A, 1st Floor, Redwood City, CA 94063, USA, Tel +1 650 723 6238, Fax +1 650 721 3417, Email vivianne@ 123456stanford.edu
                Article
                jpr-10-973
                10.2147/JPR.S129661
                5414616
                © 2017 Low et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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