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      The Ink4a tumor suppressor gene product, p19Arf, interacts with MDM2 and neutralizes MDM2's inhibition of p53.

      Cell

      Animals, Apoptosis, genetics, Biotin, Cell Line, chemistry, cytology, physiology, DNA Fragmentation, Deoxyuracil Nucleotides, Genes, p16, Lens, Crystalline, Mice, Neoplasm Proteins, metabolism, Nuclear Proteins, Osteoblasts, Proteins, Proto-Oncogene Proteins, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2, Retinoblastoma Protein, Staining and Labeling, Transformation, Genetic, Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF, Tumor Suppressor Protein p53

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          Abstract

          The INK4a gene encodes two distinct growth inhibitors--the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16Ink4a, which is a component of the Rb pathway, and the tumor suppressor p19Arf, which has been functionally linked to p53. Here we show that p19Arf potently suppresses oncogenic transformation in primary cells and that this function is abrogated when p53 is neutralized by viral oncoproteins and dominant-negative mutants but not by the p53 antagonist MDM2. This finding, coupled with the observations that p19Arf and MDM2 physically interact and that p19Rrf blocks MDM2-induced p53 degradation and transactivational silencing, suggests that p19Arf functions mechanistically to prevent MDM2's neutralization of p53. Together, our findings ascribe INK4a's potent tumor suppressor activity to the cooperative actions of its two protein products and their relation to the two central growth control pathways, Rb and p53.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Mdm2 promotes the rapid degradation of p53.

           Y Haupt,  M Oren,  A Kazaz (1997)
          The p53 tumour-suppressor protein exerts antiproliferative effects, including growth arrest and apoptosis, in response to various types of stress. The activity of p53 is abrogated by mutations that occur frequently in tumours, as well as by several viral and cellular proteins. The Mdm2 oncoprotein is a potent inhibitor of p53. Mdm2 binds the transcriptional activation domain of p53 and blocks its ability to regulate target genes and to exert antiproliferative effects. On the other hand, p53 activates the expression of the mdm2 gene in an autoregulatory feedback loop. The interval between p53 activation and consequent Mdm2 accumulation defines a time window during which p53 exerts its effects. We now report that Mdm2 also promotes the rapid degradation of p53 under conditions in which p53 is otherwise stabilized. This effect of Mdm2 requires binding of p53; moreover, a small domain of p53, encompassing the Mdm2-binding site, confers Mdm2-dependent detstabilization upon heterologous proteins. Raised amounts of Mdm2 strongly repress mutant p53 accumulation in tumour-derived cells. During recovery from DNA damage, maximal Mdm2 induction coincides with rapid p53 loss. We propose that the Mdm2-promoted degradation of p53 provides a new mechanism to ensure effective termination of the p53 signal.
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            p53 mutations in human cancers

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              The mdm-2 oncogene product forms a complex with the p53 protein and inhibits p53-mediated transactivation.

              A cellular phosphoprotein with an apparent molecular mass of 90 kd (p90) that forms a complex with both mutant and wild-type p53 protein has been characterized, purified, and identified. The protein was identified as a product of the murine double minute 2 gene (mdm-2). The mdm-2 gene enhances the tumorigenic potential of cells when it is overexpressed and encodes a putative transcription factor. To determine if mdm-2 could modulate p53 transactivation, a p53-responsive element from the muscle creatine kinase gene was employed. A wild-type p53-expressing plasmid enhanced the expression of the p53-responsive element when cotransfected into cells that contain no endogenous p53. When a cosmid expressing mdm-2 was transfected with this p53-expressing plasmid, the transactivation of the p53-responsive element was inhibited. Thus, a product of the mdm-2 oncogene forms a tight complex with the p53 protein, and the mdm-2 oncogene can inhibit p53-mediated transactivation.
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                9529248

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