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      ESTRUTURA DA ASSEMBLEIA DE SCOLYTINAE (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) EM ÁREAS FLORESTADAS COM Eucalyptus spp. NO SUL DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL Translated title: SCOLYTINAE ASSEMBLAGE STRUCTURE (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) IN FORESTED AREAS WITH Eucalyptus spp. IN SOUTHERN RIO GRANDE DO SUL STATE

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          Abstract

          RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho foi contribuir para o conhecimento da assembleia de besouros Scolytinae associada a plantios de eucalipto no sul do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil e determinar espécies de importância à cultura. Amostras quinzenais foram retiradas de cinco fazendas da Fibria Celulose S/A, florestadas com Eucalyptus spp., no período de fevereiro de 2006 a dezembro de 2010, com armadilhas de interceptação de voo iscadas com etanol a 95%. Foram coletados 7.365 exemplares em 76 espécies, 18 gêneros e sete tribos. Corthylini, representada pelos gêneros Corthylus, Monarthum, Amphicranus, Metacorthylus, Microcorthylus e Tricolus e Xyleborini, por Ambrosiodmus, Dryocoetoides, Xyleborinus, Xyleborus e Xylosandrus foram as tribos mais representativas, com 42,1% e 31,6% espécies, respectivamente. Xylosandrus retusus e Xyleborinus saxeseni foram as espécies mais abundantes com 52,64% e 27,98% do total de espécimes amostradas, seguida por Corthylus antennarius, com 4,15% besouros coletados. Quinze espécies foram comuns a todos os locais, incluindo Xyleborus ferrugineus, considerada praga desta cultura, enquanto 25 espécies foram encontradas exclusivamente em apenas um local. A fazenda Cerro Alegre apresentou a maior riqueza de espécies e maior quantidade de espécies exclusivas; São Manoel demonstrou o maior índice de diversidade e equitabilidade; Aroeira teve a maior frequência de Scolytinae e São Francisco evidenciou a maior abundância e dominância. O estudo das assembleias de Scolytinae evidenciou o predomínio das espécies Xylosandrus retusus e Xyleborinus saxeseni em todos os ambientes estudados.

          Translated abstract

          ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to contribute to the knowledge of the assembly of Scolytinae beetles associated with Eucalyptus plantations in southern Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, and determine species of importance to the culture. Biweekly samples were taken from five Fibria Celulose S/A farms forested with Eucalyptus spp., from February 2006 to December 2010, with flight intercept traps baited with 95% ethanol. We collected 7,365 specimens within 76 species, 18 genera, and seven tribes. Corthylini, represented by the genera Corthylus, Monarthum, Amphicranus, Metacorthylus, Microcorthylusand Tricolus, and Xyleborini, by Ambrosiodmus, Dryocoetoides, Xyleborinus, Xyleborus and Xylosandrus, were the most representative tribes, with 42.1% and 31.6% species, respectively. Xylosandrus retusus (Eichhoff) and Xyleborinus saxeseni (Ratzeburg) were the most abundant species, with 52.64% and 27.98% of all specimens sampled, followed by Corthylus antennarius Schedl with 4.15% beetles collected. Fifteen species were common to all sites, including Xyleborus ferrugineus (Fabricius), considered a potential pest to the culture, while 25 species were found exclusively in only one site. The farm Cerro Alegre had the highest species richness and larger number of exclusive species; São Manoel farm presented the highest diversity index and equitability; Aroeira farm had the highest frequency of Scolytinae and São Francisco farm showed the greatest abundance and dominance. The study of Scolytinae assemblages showed the predominance of Xylosandrus retusus and Xyleborinus saxeseni in all studied environmentals.

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          The evolution of agriculture in beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae).

          Beetles in the weevil subfamilies Scolytinae and Platypodinae are unusual in that they burrow as adults inside trees for feeding and oviposition. Some of these beetles are known as ambrosia beetles for their obligate mutualisms with asexual fungi--known as ambrosia fungi--that are derived from plant pathogens in the ascomycete group known as the ophiostomatoid fungi. Other beetles in these subfamilies are known as bark beetles and are associated with free-living, pathogenic ophiostomatoid fungi that facilitate beetle attack of phloem of trees with resin defenses. Using DNA sequences from six genes, including both copies of the nuclear gene encoding enolase, we performed a molecular phylogenetic study of bark and ambrosia beetles across these two subfamilies to establish the rate and direction of changes in life histories and their consequences for diversification. The ambrosia beetle habits have evolved repeatedly and are unreversed. The subfamily Platypodinae is derived from within the Scolytinae, near the tribe Scolytini. Comparison of the molecular branch lengths of ambrosia beetles and ambrosia fungi reveals a strong correlation, which a fungal molecular clock suggests spans 60 to 21 million years. Bark beetles have shifted from ancestral association with conifers to angiosperms and back again several times. Each shift to angiosperms is associated with elevated diversity, whereas the reverse shifts to conifers are associated with lowered diversity. The unusual habit of adult burrowing likely facilitated the diversification of these beetle-fungus associations, enabling them to use the biomass-rich resource that trees represent and set the stage for at least one origin of eusociality.
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            The bark and ambrosia beetles of North and Central America (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), a taxonomic monograph

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              Fungus cultivation by ambrosia beetles: behavior and laboratory breeding success in three xyleborine species.

              Fungus cultivation by ambrosia beetles is one of the four independently evolved cases of agriculture known in animals. Such cultivation is most advanced in the highly social subtribe Xyleborina (Scolytinae), which is characterized by haplodiploidy and extreme levels of inbreeding. Despite their ubiquity in forests worldwide, the behavior of these beetles remains poorly understood. This may be in part because of their cryptic life habits within the wood of trees. Here we present data obtained by varying a laboratory breeding technique based on artificial medium inside glass tubes, which enables behavioral observations. We studied species of the three most widespread genera of Xyleborina in the temperate zone: Xyleborus, Xyleborinus, and Xylosandrus. We raised several generations of each species with good breeding success in two types of media. The proportion of females of Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg producing offspring within 40 d depended significantly on founder female origin, which shows a transgenerational effect. Labor-intensive microbial sterilization techniques did not increase females' breeding success relative to a group of females shortly treated with ethanol. Gallery productivity measured as the mean number of mature offspring produced after 40 d varied between species and was weakly affected by the type of medium used and foundress origin (field or laboratory) in X. saxesenii, whereas different preparation and sterilization techniques of the beetles had no effect. Behavioral observations showed the time course of different reproductive stages and enabled to obtain detailed behavioral information in all species studied. We propose that the laboratory techniques we describe here are suited for extensive studies of sociality and modes of agriculture in the xyleborine ambrosia beetles, which may yield important insights into the evolution of fungal agriculture and advanced social organization.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                cflo
                Ciência Florestal
                Ciênc. Florest.
                Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (Santa Maria, RS, Brazil )
                0103-9954
                1980-5098
                December 2017
                : 27
                : 4
                : 1167-1177
                Affiliations
                [5] Rio Grande do Sul orgnameUniversidade Federal de Pelotas Brazil flaviormg@ 123456hotmail.com
                [3] São Paulo orgnameUniversidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho Brazil flechtma@ 123456bio.feis.unesp.br
                [4] orgnameEquilíbrio Proteção Florestal Brazil elder.finkenauer@ 123456yahoo.com.br
                [1] Rio Grande do Sul orgnameUniversidade Federal de Pelotas Brazil jutianewollmann@ 123456hotmail.com
                [2] Rio Grande do Sul orgnameUniversidade Federal de Pelotas Brazil garciasmauro@ 123456yahoo.com.br
                Article
                S1980-50982017000401167
                10.5902/1980509830299
                b3408087-0680-47e7-b5b8-490d9e3ca077

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 15 August 2016
                : 25 February 2014
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 42, Pages: 11
                Product

                SciELO Brazil


                análise faunística,besouros-da-ambrosia,eucalypt,diversity,faunistic analysis,ambrosia beetles,eucalipto,diversidade

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