The parasitic zoonosis toxoplasmosis, which was poorly understood before the advent of the HIV epidemic, has become a major clinical problem worldwide. Humans acquire toxoplasmosis from cats, from consuming raw or undercooked meat and from vertical transmission to the foetus through the placenta during pregnancy. Studies of the unique environmental factors in various communities indicate the important roles that eating habits and culture have on the transmission of this infection. The socioepidemiological aspects of toxoplasmosis are thought to be important contributing factors for the spread of this disease. Preventative measures should consider the cultures and beliefs of people in various communities more than solving poverty and giving orthodox health education.