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      The role of delamanid in the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis

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          Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant cause of death worldwide, and emergence of drug-resistant TB requires lengthy treatments with toxic drugs that are less effective than their first-line equivalents. New treatments are urgently needed. Delamanid, previously OPC-67863, is a novel drug of the dihydro-nitroimidazole class with potent anti-TB activity and great promise to be effective in the treatment of drug-resistant TB. This review examines the preclinical and clinical development of delamanid, reviews current guidance on its use and evaluates the opportunities and challenges for its future role in TB management.

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          Emergence of new forms of totally drug-resistant tuberculosis bacilli: super extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis or totally drug-resistant strains in iran.

          The study documented the emergence of new forms of resistant bacilli (totally drug-resistant [TDR] or super extensively drug-resistant [XDR] tuberculosis [TB] strains) among patients with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). Susceptibility testing against first- and second-line drugs was performed on isolated Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. Subsequently, the strains identified as XDR or TDR M tuberculosis were subjected to spoligotyping and variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTR). Of 146 MDR-TB strains, 8 XDR isolates (5.4%) and 15 TDR isolates (10.3%) were identified. The remaining strains were either susceptible (67%) or had other resistant patterns (20%). Overall, the median of treatments and drugs previously received by MDR-TB patients was two courses of therapy of 15 months' duration with five drugs (isoniazid [INH], rifampicin [RF], streptomycin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide). The median of in vitro drug resistance for all studied cases was INH and RF. The XDR or TDR strains were collected from both immigrants (Afghan, 30.4%; Azerbaijani, 8.6%; Iraqi, 4.3%) and Iranian (56.5%) MDR-TB cases. In such cases, the smear and cultures remained positive after 18 months of medium treatment with second-line drugs (ethionamide, para-aminosalicylic acid, cycloserine, ofloxacin, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin). Spoligotyping revealed Haarlem (39.1%), Beijing (21.7%), EAI (21.7%), and CAS (17.3%) superfamilies of M tuberculosis. These superfamilies had different VNTR profiles, which eliminated the recent transmission among MDR-TB cases. The isolation of TDR strains from MDR-TB patients from different regional countries is alarming and underlines the possible dissemination of such strains in Asian countries. Now the next question is how one should control and treat such cases.
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            Global tuberculosis drug development pipeline: the need and the reality.

            Drugs for tuberculosis are inadequate to address the many inherent and emerging challenges of treatment. In the past decade, ten compounds have progressed into the clinical development pipeline, including six new compounds specifically developed for tuberculosis. Despite this progress, the global drug pipeline for tuberculosis is still insufficient to address the unmet needs of treatment. Additional and sustainable efforts, and funding are needed to further improve the pipeline. The key challenges in the development of new treatments are the needs for novel drug combinations, new trial designs, studies in paediatric populations, increased clinical trial capacity, clear regulatory guidelines, and biomarkers for prediction of long-term outcome. Despite substantial progress in efforts to control tuberculosis, the global burden of this disease remains high. To eliminate tuberculosis as a public health concern by 2050, all responsible parties need to work together to strengthen the global antituberculosis drug pipeline and support the development of new antituberculosis drug regimens. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              The early bactericidal activity of drugs in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.


                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                13 May 2015
                : 11
                : 779-791
                [1 ]Tropical and Infectious Disease Unit, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, UK
                [2 ]Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, UK
                [3 ]Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital, Liverpool, UK
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Derek J Sloan, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA UK, Email derek.sloan@ 123456lstmed.ac.uk
                © 2015 Lewis and Sloan. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.



                delamanid, mdr-tb, drug resistance, tuberculosis, opc-67683


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