Objective This study explored the relationships among psychological stress, achievement motivation and psychological capital in college students to provide a reference for improving the level of psychological capital in college students.
Methods A multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 9 940 college students from ten universities in Anhui Province. The achievement motivation scale (AMS), psychological stress scale (SRQ-20) and psychological capital scale (PPQ) were applied. The moderating effect of the questionnaire was analyzed with χ 2 tests, Spearman rank correlation and stratified regression.
Results Statistical differences were found in psychological stress according to major, whether students leader, family economic status and whether students had left-behind experience (χ 2 = 15.50, 10.25, 28.61, 25.55, P<0.05). The rank correlation results indicated that psychological stress was negatively correlated with the pursuit of success ( r = −0.27) and four dimensions of self-efficacy, optimism, hope and resilence in psychological capital ( r = −0.43, −0.41, −0.36, −0.45) ( P<0.05), and was positively correlated with the avoidance of failure ( r = 0.25, P<0.05). The stratified regression model indicated that psychological stress in the dimensions of college students’achievement motivation (pursuit of success: β = 0.02, Δ R 2 = 0.01, P<0.01; failure avoidance: β = 0.03, Δ R 2 = 0.01, P<0.01) played a moderating role in the relationship between psychological capital and psychological capital.
Conclusion Being female, senior students, low household economic status, and left-behind experience are associated with more psychological stress among college students. Psychological stress is correlated with achievement motivation and psychological capital, and has a moderating effect on the relationship between achievement motivation and psychological capital.
【摘要】 目的 探讨大学生心理应激、成就动机与心理资本的关系, 为提升大学生心理资本水平提供参考。 方法 采用 多阶段分层整群抽样的方法抽取安黴省 10 所高校 9 940 名大学生, 使用成就动机量表 (AMS)、心理应激量表 (SRQ-20)、心理资本量表 (PPQ) 进行调查, 运用妒检验、Spearman 相关和分层回归进行调节作用分析。 结果 不同专业、是否任职学 生干部、家庭财富等级和是否具有留守经历方面的大学生心理应激状态检出率差异均有统计学意义 (χ 2 值分别为 15.50, 10.25,28.61, 25.55, P 值均<0.05); 相关结果表明, 大学生心理应激与成就动机中的追求成功 ( r = −0.27) 和心理资本中的自 我效能、乐观、希望、韧性 4 个维度均呈负相关 ( r 值分别为 −0.43, −0.41, −0.36, −0.45, P 值均<0.05), 而与避免失败呈正相 关 ( r = 0.25, P<0.05)。分层回归模型结果表明, 心理应激在大学生成就动机各维度 (β 追求成功 = 0.02, Δ R 2 = 0.01, P<0.01; β 避免失败 = 0.03, Δ R 2 = 0.01, P<0.01) 与心理资本的关系存在调节作用。 结论 女生、高年级、低家庭财富等级、有留守经历的 大学生更易产生心理应激;心理应激与成就动机和心理资本均存在关联, 且心理应激在大学生成就动机与心理资本的关系 间存在调节作用。