Blog
About

4
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Fear-potentiated startle in humans: effects of anticipatory anxiety on the acoustic blink reflex.

      Psychophysiology

      Acoustic Stimulation, Adult, Analysis of Variance, Anxiety, physiopathology, Blinking, physiology, Electroshock, Fear, Female, Humans, Male, Reflex, Startle

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The effects of fear/anticipatory anxiety on the acoustic startle reflex were investigated in humans using a paradigm involving anticipation of electric shocks. The eyeblink component of the startle reflex, elicited by an abrupt auditory stimulus, was measured in 9 normal volunteers during either the anticipation of electric shocks (anticipatory anxiety) or periods in which no shocks were anticipated (safe period). The eyeblink was consistently higher in amplitude, and shorter in latency, during periods when the subjects anticipated shocks, compared to the safe periods. This effect could not be attributed solely to a reduction in habituation and was statistically significant before the subjects actually received any shock (a single 30 mA stimulation on the median nerve). These results indicate that anticipatory anxiety can be measured objectively in humans using the fear-potentiated startle reflex in a paradigm not actually requiring any shock. Because a great deal is known about the neuroanatomical and pharmacological mechanisms of fear-potentiated startle in laboratory animals, this test procedure may be especially useful in humans to investigate the neurobiological substrates of anxiety disorders and their pharmacological treatments.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 19

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          The startle probe response: a new measure of emotion?

            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            Reflex modification in the domain of startle: I. Some empirical findings and their implications for how the nervous system processes sensory input.

              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Lesions of the amygdala, but not of the cerebellum or red nucleus, block conditioned fear as measured with the potentiated startle paradigm.

              Rats were given 10 light-shock pairings on 2 successive days. At 24-48 hr following training, groups of rats received bilateral transection of the cerebellar peduncles, bilateral lesions of the red nucleus (which receives most of the cerebellar efferents), or bilateral lesions of the central nucleus of the amygdala. Control rats were sham operated. At 3-4 days after surgery, the rats were tested for potentiated startle (increased acoustic startle in the presence of the light previously paired with shock). Potentiated startle was blocked by lesions of the central nucleus of the amygdala. Transection of the cerebellar peduncles or lesions of the red nucleus did not block potentiated startle. A second experiment in which a visual prepulse test was used indicated that the blockade of potentiated startle observed in the animals with amygdala lesions could not be attributed to optic tract damage. A third experiment demonstrated that the absence of potentiation in the animals with amygdala lesions was not simply due to a lowered startle level ceiling, because these animals could show increased startle with increased stimulus intensity and with administration of strychnine, a drug that increases startle. Taken together, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that the amygdala is involved in fear conditioning, because potentiated startle is a measure of conditioned fear.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                1758934

                Comments

                Comment on this article