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      Successful Gene Transfer Using Adeno-Associated Virus Vectors into the Kidney: Comparison among Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 1–5 Vectors in vitro and in vivo

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          Background/Aim: Gene transfer into the kidney has great potential as a novel therapeutic approach. However, an efficient method of gene transfer into the kidney has not been established. We explored the transduction efficiency of renal cells in vitro and in vivo using adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 1–5 vectors encoding the β-galactosidase gene. Methods: In the in vitro study, rat kidney epithelial cell line NRK52E cells were transfected with AAV serotype derived vectors. In the in vivo study, AAV serotype derived vectors were selectively injected into the kidney using a catheter-based gene delivery system in rats and mice mimicking the clinical procedure. The efficiency of gene expression was histologically evaluated on the basis of the β-galactosidase expression. Results: AAV serotype 1, 2, and 5 vectors transduced in rat kidney epithelial cell line NRK52E cells in vitro, whereas AAV serotype 3 or 4 vectors showed no transduction. In addition, the kidney-specific injection of AAV serotype 2 vectors successfully transduced in tubular epithelial cells, but not in glomerular, blood vessel, or interstitial cells in vivo, whereas the rest of the serotypes showed no transduction. Conclusion: Since kidney-specific gene delivery via the renal artery by catheterization is highly feasible in humans, these findings provide useful information for promising strategies in renal gene therapy.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Novel adeno-associated viruses from rhesus monkeys as vectors for human gene therapy.

          Tissues from rhesus monkeys were screened by PCR for the presence of sequences homologous to known adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotypes 1-6. DNA spanning entire rep-cap ORFs from two novel AAVs, called AAV7 and AAV8, were isolated. Sequence comparisons among these and previously described AAVs revealed the greatest divergence in capsid proteins. AAV7 and AAV8 were not neutralized by heterologous antisera raised to the other serotypes. Neutralizing antibodies to AAV7 and AAV8 were rare in human serum and, when present, were low in activity. Vectors formed with capsids from AAV7 and AAV8 were generated by using rep and inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) from AAV2 and were compared with similarly constructed vectors made from capsids of AAV1, AAV2, and AAV5. Murine models of skeletal muscle and liver-directed gene transfer were used to evaluate relative vector performance. AAV7 vectors demonstrated efficiencies of transgene expression in skeletal muscle equivalent to that observed with AAV1, the most efficient known serotype for this application. In liver, transgene expression was 10- to 100-fold higher with AAV8 than observed with other serotypes. This improved efficiency correlated with increased persistence of vector DNA and higher number of transduced hepatocytes. The efficiency of AAV8 vector for liver-directed gene transfer of factor IX was not impacted by preimmunization with the other AAV serotypes. Vectors based on these novel, nonhuman primate AAVs should be considered for human gene therapy because of low reactivity to antibodies directed to human AAVs and because gene transfer efficiency in muscle was similar to that obtained with the best known serotype, whereas, in liver, gene transfer was substantially higher than previously described.
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            AlphaVbeta5 integrin: a co-receptor for adeno-associated virus type 2 infection.

            Understanding the primary steps of viral entry can have important implications for strategies to prevent infection of known viral pathogens as well as determining parameters for efficient gene delivery using viral vectors. Recently, a two-step process for viral infection involving attachment of virus to a primary receptor (coxsackievirus adenovirus receptor and heparan sulfate proteoglycan) and subsequent mediation of virus entry by a co-receptor (alphaV integrins and HVEM) has been determined for both adenovirus and HSV, respectively. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan serves as a primary attachment receptor for adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2)(ref. 5). Here we determined that alphaVbeta5 integrin plays a part in efficient AAV infection. Experiments using the chelating agent EDTA to disrupt integrin function resulted in a corresponding decrease in AAV infection, consistent with the possibility that integrin mediates infection. Viral overlay experiments on purified plasma membrane proteins as well as immunoprecipitated integrin beta5 subunit demonstrated that AAV directly associates with the beta5 subunit of alphaVbeta5 integrin. Genetically defined cells expressing alphaVbeta5 integrin showed increased susceptibility to AAV infection, demonstrating a biological role of this integrin in AAV infection. Finally, viral binding and internalization studies indicate that alphaVbeta5 integrin is not a primary attachment receptor for AAV-2, but is instead involved in facilitating virus internalization. This study supports the idea that alphaVbeta5 integrin serves as a co-receptor for AAV-2 virions, and should have a substantial effect on the use of AAV vectors in human gene therapy.
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              Human fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 is a co-receptor for infection by adeno-associated virus 2.

              Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV)-based vectors have gained attention as a potentially useful alternative to the more commonly used retroviral and adenoviral vectors for human gene therapy. Although AAV uses the ubiquitously expressed cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) as a receptor, the transduction efficiency of AAV vectors varies greatly in different cells and tissues in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate here that cell surface expression of HSPG alone is insufficient for AAV infection, and that AAV also requires human fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) as a co-receptor for successful viral entry into the host cell. We document that cells that do not express either HSPG or FGFR1 fail to bind AAV and, consequently, are resistant to infection by AAV. These non-permissive cells are successfully transduced by AAV vectors after stable transfections with cDNAs encoding the murine HSPG and the human FGFR1. Furthermore, AAV infection of permissive cells, known to express both FGFR1 and the epidermal growth factor receptor, is abrogated by treatment of cells with basic fibroblast growth factor, but not with epidermal growth factor. The identification of FGFR1 as a co-receptor for AAV should provide new insights not only into its role in the life cycle of AAV, but also in the optimal use of AAV vectors in human gene therapy.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                April 2004
                17 November 2004
                : 96
                : 4
                : e119-e126
                Divisions of aOrgan Replacement Research and bGenetic Therapeutics, Center for Molecular Medicine, Jichi Medical School, cDivision of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, and dDepartment of Anatomy, Jichi Medical School, Tochigi, eDepartment of Organ Regeneration, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine, Matsumoto, and fDepartment of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Gunma University School of Medicine, Maebashi, Japan
                77378 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2004;96:e119–e126
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 5, References: 31, Pages: 1
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