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      Shame and Guilt: Relationships of Test of Self-Conscious Affect Measures With Psychological Adjustment and Gender Differences in Iran

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          Abstract

          In numerous studies conducted in Western societies, shame as measured by the Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA) has correlated with maladjustment whereas the TOSCA Guilt Scale has predicted adjustment. The present investigation sought to determine if such linkages would also appear in the Muslim cultural context of Iran. Iranian university students ( N = 132) responded to Shame and Guilt Scales from the third version of the TOSCA, along with an array of personality measures. Shame correlated negatively with adjustment and positively with maladjustment. Guilt displayed an opposite pattern of relationships. As in previous Western investigations, women scored higher than men on guilt, but the expected female elevation in shame failed to appear. Shame, nevertheless, interacted with gender to predict relationships with poorer psychological functioning in women, but not in men. These data most importantly confirmed that the TOSCA Shame and Guilt Scales in Iran display implications similar to those observed in the West and that gender differences in Iran may deserve additional research attention.

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          Most cited references22

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          Measuring individual differences in empathy: Evidence for a multidimensional approach.

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            High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success.

            What good is self-control? We incorporated a new measure of individual differences in self-control into two large investigations of a broad spectrum of behaviors. The new scale showed good internal consistency and retest reliability. Higher scores on self-control correlated with a higher grade point average, better adjustment (fewer reports of psychopathology, higher self-esteem), less binge eating and alcohol abuse, better relationships and interpersonal skills, secure attachment, and more optimal emotional responses. Tests for curvilinearity failed to indicate any drawbacks of so-called overcontrol, and the positive effects remained after controlling for social desirability. Low self-control is thus a significant risk factor for a broad range of personal and interpersonal problems.
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              Private self-consciousness and the five-factor model of personality: distinguishing rumination from reflection.

              A distinction between ruminative and reflective types of private self-attentiveness is introduced and evaluated with respect to L. R. Goldberg's (1982) list of 1,710 English trait adjectives (Study 1), the five-factor model of personality (FFM) and A. Fenigstein, M. F. Scheier, and A. Buss's (1975) Self-Consciousness Scales (Study 2), and previously reported correlates and effects of private self-consciousness (PrSC; Studies 3 and 4). Results suggest that the PrSC scale confounds two unrelated, motivationally distinct dispositions--rumination and reflection--and that this confounding may account for the "self-absorption paradox" implicit in PrSC research findings: Higher PrSC scores are associated with more accurate and extensive self-knowledge yet higher levels of psychological distress. The potential of the FFM to provide a comprehensive framework for conceptualizing self-attentive dispositions, and to order and integrate research findings within this domain, is discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                IJPR
                Interpersona
                Interpersona
                An International Journal on Personal Relationships
                Interpersona
                PsychOpen
                1981-6472
                28 June 2013
                : 7
                : 1
                : 97-109
                Affiliations
                [a ]University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
                [b ]University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Chattanooga, United States
                [c ]University of Oregon, Eugene, United States
                Author notes
                [* ]Psychology/Department #2803, 350 Holt Hall – 615 McCallie Avenue, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga 37403, U.S.A. paul-watson@ 123456utc.edu
                Article
                ijpr.v7i1.118
                10.5964/ijpr.v7i1.118
                b3756b77-9929-4d1e-8b07-4abc25ce3a20
                Copyright @

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 28 March 2013
                : 27 May 2013
                Categories
                Articles

                Psychology
                sex differences,psychological adjustment,Iran,guilt,shame
                Psychology
                sex differences, psychological adjustment, Iran, guilt, shame

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