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      Systems Drug Design for Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer and Advanced Bladder Cancer by Genome-Wide Microarray Data and Deep Learning Method with Drug Design Specifications

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      International Journal of Molecular Sciences
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          Bladder cancer is the 10th most common cancer worldwide. Due to the lack of understanding of the oncogenic mechanisms between muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) and advanced bladder cancer (ABC) and the limitations of current treatments, novel therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. In this study, we utilized the systems biology method via genome-wide microarray data to explore the oncogenic mechanisms of MIBC and ABC to identify their respective drug targets for systems drug discovery. First, we constructed the candidate genome-wide genetic and epigenetic networks (GWGEN) through big data mining. Second, we applied the system identification and system order detection method to delete false positives in candidate GWGENs to obtain the real GWGENs of MIBC and ABC from their genome-wide microarray data. Third, we extracted the core GWGENs from the real GWGENs by selecting the significant proteins, genes and epigenetics via the principal network projection (PNP) method. Finally, we obtained the core signaling pathways from the corresponding core GWGEN through the annotations of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway to investigate the carcinogenic mechanisms of MIBC and ABC. Based on the carcinogenic mechanisms, we selected the significant drug targets NFKB1, LEF1 and MYC for MIBC, and LEF1, MYC, NOTCH1 and FOXO1 for ABC. To design molecular drug combinations for MIBC and ABC, we employed a deep neural network (DNN)-based drug-target interaction (DTI) model with drug specifications. The DNN-based DTI model was trained by drug-target interaction databases to predict the candidate drugs for MIBC and ABC, respectively. Subsequently, the drug design specifications based on regulation ability, sensitivity and toxicity were employed as filter criteria for screening the potential drug combinations of Embelin and Obatoclax for MIBC, and Obatoclax, Entinostat and Imiquimod for ABC from their candidate drugs. In conclusion, we not only investigated the oncogenic mechanisms of MIBC and ABC, but also provided promising therapeutic options for MIBC and ABC, respectively.

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          Most cited references118

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          This article provides an update on the global cancer burden using the GLOBOCAN 2020 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Worldwide, an estimated 19.3 million new cancer cases (18.1 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and almost 10.0 million cancer deaths (9.9 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) occurred in 2020. Female breast cancer has surpassed lung cancer as the most commonly diagnosed cancer, with an estimated 2.3 million new cases (11.7%), followed by lung (11.4%), colorectal (10.0 %), prostate (7.3%), and stomach (5.6%) cancers. Lung cancer remained the leading cause of cancer death, with an estimated 1.8 million deaths (18%), followed by colorectal (9.4%), liver (8.3%), stomach (7.7%), and female breast (6.9%) cancers. Overall incidence was from 2-fold to 3-fold higher in transitioned versus transitioning countries for both sexes, whereas mortality varied <2-fold for men and little for women. Death rates for female breast and cervical cancers, however, were considerably higher in transitioning versus transitioned countries (15.0 vs 12.8 per 100,000 and 12.4 vs 5.2 per 100,000, respectively). The global cancer burden is expected to be 28.4 million cases in 2040, a 47% rise from 2020, with a larger increase in transitioning (64% to 95%) versus transitioned (32% to 56%) countries due to demographic changes, although this may be further exacerbated by increasing risk factors associated with globalization and a growing economy. Efforts to build a sustainable infrastructure for the dissemination of cancer prevention measures and provision of cancer care in transitioning countries is critical for global cancer control.
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            KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) is a knowledge base for systematic analysis of gene functions, linking genomic information with higher order functional information. The genomic information is stored in the GENES database, which is a collection of gene catalogs for all the completely sequenced genomes and some partial genomes with up-to-date annotation of gene functions. The higher order functional information is stored in the PATHWAY database, which contains graphical representations of cellular processes, such as metabolism, membrane transport, signal transduction and cell cycle. The PATHWAY database is supplemented by a set of ortholog group tables for the information about conserved subpathways (pathway motifs), which are often encoded by positionally coupled genes on the chromosome and which are especially useful in predicting gene functions. A third database in KEGG is LIGAND for the information about chemical compounds, enzyme molecules and enzymatic reactions. KEGG provides Java graphics tools for browsing genome maps, comparing two genome maps and manipulating expression maps, as well as computational tools for sequence comparison, graph comparison and path computation. The KEGG databases are daily updated and made freely available (http://www. genome.ad.jp/kegg/).
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              Abstract The UniProt Knowledgebase is a collection of sequences and annotations for over 120 million proteins across all branches of life. Detailed annotations extracted from the literature by expert curators have been collected for over half a million of these proteins. These annotations are supplemented by annotations provided by rule based automated systems, and those imported from other resources. In this article we describe significant updates that we have made over the last 2 years to the resource. We have greatly expanded the number of Reference Proteomes that we provide and in particular we have focussed on improving the number of viral Reference Proteomes. The UniProt website has been augmented with new data visualizations for the subcellular localization of proteins as well as their structure and interactions. UniProt resources are available under a CC-BY (4.0) license via the web at https://www.uniprot.org/.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                IJMCFK
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                IJMS
                MDPI AG
                1422-0067
                November 2022
                November 10 2022
                : 23
                : 22
                : 13869
                Article
                10.3390/ijms232213869
                b37c7d8b-b2c9-4ecd-bd42-7a3722028347
                © 2022

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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