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      Integration and offender mental health

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      The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology

      Informa UK Limited

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          Health systems integration: state of the evidence

          Introduction Integrated health systems are considered a solution to the challenge of maintaining the accessibility and integrity of healthcare in numerous jurisdictions worldwide. However, decision makers in a Canadian health region indicated they were challenged to find evidence-based information to assist with the planning and implementation of integrated healthcare systems. Methods A systematic literature review of peer-reviewed literature from health sciences and business databases, and targeted grey literature sources. Results Despite the large number of articles discussing integration, significant gaps in the research literature exist. There was a lack of high quality, empirical studies providing evidence on how health systems can improve service delivery and population health. No universal definition or concept of integration was found and multiple integration models from both the healthcare and business literature were proposed in the literature. The review also revealed a lack of standardized, validated tools that have been systematically used to evaluate integration outcomes. This makes measuring and comparing the impact of integration on system, provider and patient level challenging. Discussion and conclusion Healthcare is likely too complex for a one-size-fits-all integration solution. It is important for decision makers and planners to choose a set of complementary models, structures and processes to create an integrated health system that fits the needs of the population across the continuum of care. However, in order to have evidence available, decision makers and planners should include evaluation for accountability purposes and to ensure a better understanding of the effectiveness and impact of health systems integration.
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            Effect of mental health courts on arrests and jail days: a multisite study.

            Mental health courts are growing in popularity as a form of jail diversion for justice system-involved people with serious mental illness. This is the first prospective multisite study on mental health courts with treatment and control groups. To determine if participation in a mental health court is associated with more favorable criminal justice outcomes than processing through the regular criminal court system and to identify defendants for whom mental health courts produce the most favorable criminal justice outcomes. Longitudinal study. Four mental health courts in San Francisco County, CA, Santa Clara County, CA, Hennepin County (Minneapolis), MN, and Marion County (Indianapolis), IN. A total 447 persons in the mental health court (MHC) and 600 treatment-as-usual (TAU) controls. Eighteen months of pre-entry and postentry data for 4 jurisdictions. All subjects were interviewed at baseline, and 70% were interviewed at 6 months. Objective outcome data were obtained on all subjects from Federal Bureau of Investigation arrest records, jails, prisons, and community treatment providers. Annualized rearrest rates, number of rearrests, and postentry incarceration days. The MHC and TAU samples are similar on the major outcome measures in the pre-entry 18-month period. In the 18 months following treatment, defined as entry into mental health court, the MHC group has a lower annualized rearrest rate, fewer post-18-month arrests, and fewer post-18-month incarceration days than the TAU group. The MHC graduates had lower rearrest rates than participants whose participation was terminated both during MHC supervision and after supervision ended. Factors associated with better outcomes among the MHC participants include lower pre-18-month arrests and incarceration days, treatment at baseline, not using illegal substances, and a diagnosis of bipolar disorder rather than schizophrenia or depression. Mental health courts meet the public safety objectives of lowering posttreatment arrest rates and days of incarceration. Both clinical and criminal justice factors are associated with better public safety outcomes for MHC participants.
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              Identification and management of prisoners with severe psychiatric illness by specialist mental health services.

              The prevalence of mental disorders among prisoners is considerably higher than in the general population. This is an important public health issue as the vast majority of prisoners stay in custody for less than 9 months and, when not in prison, offenders' lifestyles are frequently chaotic, characterized by social exclusion, instability and unemployment. Multi-disciplinary mental health inreach services were introduced to target care towards prisoners with severe mental illness (SMI) in a similar way to that provided by Community Mental Health Teams outside prison. The aim was to establish the proportion of prisoners with SMI who were assessed and managed by prison mental health inreach services. Method A two-phase prevalence survey in six prisons in England measured SMI upon reception into custody. Case-note review established the proportion of those with SMI subsequently assessed and treated by inreach services. Of 3492 prisoners screened, 23% had SMI. Inreach teams assessed only 25% of these unwell prisoners, and accepted just 13% onto their caseloads. Inreach teams identified and managed only a small proportion of prisoners with SMI. Prison-based services need to improve screening procedures and develop effective care pathways to ensure access to appropriate services. Improved identification of mental illness is needed in both the community and the Criminal Justice System to better engage with socially transient individuals who have chaotic lifestyles and complex needs.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology
                The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology
                Informa UK Limited
                1478-9949
                1478-9957
                November 19 2014
                September 29 2014
                : 26
                : 1
                : 11-21
                10.1080/14789949.2014.960440
                © 2014

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