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      EMT in cancer

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      Nature Reviews Cancer

      Springer Nature

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          The basics of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

          The origins of the mesenchymal cells participating in tissue repair and pathological processes, notably tissue fibrosis, tumor invasiveness, and metastasis, are poorly understood. However, emerging evidence suggests that epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) represent one important source of these cells. As we discuss here, processes similar to the EMTs associated with embryo implantation, embryogenesis, and organ development are appropriated and subverted by chronically inflamed tissues and neoplasias. The identification of the signaling pathways that lead to activation of EMT programs during these disease processes is providing new insights into the plasticity of cellular phenotypes and possible therapeutic interventions.
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            Twist, a master regulator of morphogenesis, plays an essential role in tumor metastasis.

            Metastasis is a multistep process during which cancer cells disseminate from the site of primary tumors and establish secondary tumors in distant organs. In a search for key regulators of metastasis in a murine breast tumor model, we have found that the transcription factor Twist, a master regulator of embryonic morphogenesis, plays an essential role in metastasis. Suppression of Twist expression in highly metastatic mammary carcinoma cells specifically inhibits their ability to metastasize from the mammary gland to the lung. Ectopic expression of Twist results in loss of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion, activation of mesenchymal markers, and induction of cell motility, suggesting that Twist contributes to metastasis by promoting an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In human breast cancers, high level of Twist expression is correlated with invasive lobular carcinoma, a highly infiltrating tumor type associated with loss of E-cadherin expression. These results establish a mechanistic link between Twist, EMT, and tumor metastasis.
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              The pathogenesis of cancer metastasis: the 'seed and soil' hypothesis revisited.

               ISAIAH FIDLER (2003)
              Researchers have been studying metastasis for more than 100 years, and only recently have we gained insight into the mechanisms by which metastatic cells arise from primary tumours and the reasons that certain tumour types tend to metastasize to specific organs. Stephen Paget's 1889 proposal that metastasis depends on cross-talk between selected cancer cells (the 'seeds') and specific organ microenvironments (the 'soil') still holds forth today. It is now known that the potential of a tumour cell to metastasize depends on its interactions with the homeostatic factors that promote tumour-cell growth, survival, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. How has this field developed over the past century, and what major breakthroughs are most likely to lead to effective therapeutic approaches?
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Cancer
                Nat Rev Cancer
                Springer Nature
                1474-175X
                1474-1768
                January 12 2018
                January 12 2018
                :
                :
                Article
                10.1038/nrc.2017.118
                © 2018
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