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      Crossbridge Recruitment Capacity of Wild-Type and Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy-Related Mutant Troponin-T Evaluated by X-ray Diffraction and Mechanical Study of Cardiac Skinned Fibers

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          Abstract

          X-ray diffraction and tension measurement experiments were conducted on rat left ventricular skinned fibers with or without “troponin-T treatment,” which exchanges the endogenous troponin T/I/C complex with exogenous troponin-T. These experiments were performed to observe the structural changes in troponin-T within a fiber elicited by contractile crossbridge formation and investigate the abnormality of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-related troponin-T mutants. The intensity of the troponin reflection at 1/38.5 nm −1 was decreased significantly by ATP addition after treatment with wild-type or mutant troponin-T, indicating that crossbridge formation affected the conformation of troponin-T. In experiments on cardiac fibers treated with the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-related mutants E244D- and K247R-troponin-T, treatment with K247R-troponin-T did not recruit contracting actomyosin to a greater extent than wild-type-troponin-T, although a similar drop in the intensity of the troponin reflection occurred. Therefore, the conformational change in K247R-troponin-T was suggested to be unable to fully recruit actomyosin interaction, which may be the cause of cardiomyopathy.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Structure of the rigor actin-tropomyosin-myosin complex.

          Regulation of myosin and filamentous actin interaction by tropomyosin is a central feature of contractile events in muscle and nonmuscle cells. However, little is known about molecular interactions within the complex and the trajectory of tropomyosin movement between its "open" and "closed" positions on the actin filament. Here, we report the 8 Å resolution structure of the rigor (nucleotide-free) actin-tropomyosin-myosin complex determined by cryo-electron microscopy. The pseudoatomic model of the complex, obtained from fitting crystal structures into the map, defines the large interface involving two adjacent actin monomers and one tropomyosin pseudorepeat per myosin contact. Severe forms of hereditary myopathies are linked to mutations that critically perturb this interface. Myosin binding results in a 23 Å shift of tropomyosin along actin. Complex domain motions occur in myosin, but not in actin. Based on our results, we propose a structural model for the tropomyosin-dependent modulation of myosin binding to actin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Mutations in the genes for cardiac troponin T and alpha-tropomyosin in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

            Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can be caused by mutations in the genes for beta cardiac myosin heavy chain, alpha-tropomyosin, or cardiac troponin T. It is not known how often the disease is caused by mutations in the tropomyosin and troponin genes, and the associated clinical phenotypes have not been carefully studied. Linkage between polymorphisms of the alpha-tropomyosin gene or the cardiac troponin T gene and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was assessed in 27 families. In addition, 100 probands were screened for mutations in the alpha-tropomyosin gene, and 26 were screened for mutations in the cardiac troponin T gene. Life expectancy, the incidence of sudden death, and the extent of left ventricular hypertrophy were compared in patients with different mutations. Genetic analyses identified only one alpha-tropomyosin mutation, identical to one previously described. Five novel mutations in cardiac troponin were identified, as well as a further example of a previously described mutation. The clinical phenotype of four troponin T mutations in seven unrelated families was similar and was characterized by a poor prognosis (life expectancy, approximately 35 years) and a high incidence of sudden death. The mean (+/- SD) maximal thickness of the left ventricular wall in subjects with cardiac troponin T mutations (16.7 +/- 5.5 mm) was significantly less than that in subjects with beta cardiac myosin heavy-chain mutations (23.7 +/- 7.7 mm, P < 0.001). Mutations in alpha-tropomyosin are a rare cause of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, accounting for approximately 3 percent of cases. Mutations in cardiac troponin T account for approximately 15 percent of cases of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in this referral-center population. These mutations are characterized by relatively mild and sometimes subclinical hypertrophy but a high incidence of sudden death. Genetic testing may therefore be especially important in this group.
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              X-ray diffraction evidence for myosin-troponin connections and tropomyosin movement during stretch activation of insect flight muscle.

              Stretch activation is important in the mechanical properties of vertebrate cardiac muscle and essential to the flight muscles of most insects. Despite decades of investigation, the underlying molecular mechanism of stretch activation is unknown. We investigated the role of recently observed connections between myosin and troponin, called "troponin bridges," by analyzing real-time X-ray diffraction "movies" from sinusoidally stretch-activated Lethocerus muscles. Observed changes in X-ray reflections arising from myosin heads, actin filaments, troponin, and tropomyosin were consistent with the hypothesis that troponin bridges are the key agent of mechanical signal transduction. The time-resolved sequence of molecular changes suggests a mechanism for stretch activation, in which troponin bridges mechanically tug tropomyosin aside to relieve tropomyosin's steric blocking of myosin-actin binding. This enables subsequent force production, with cross-bridge targeting further enhanced by stretch-induced lattice compression and thick-filament twisting. Similar linkages may operate in other muscle systems, such as mammalian cardiac muscle, where stretch activation is thought to aid in cardiac ejection.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                15 May 2020
                May 2020
                : 21
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Physiology, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo 105-8461, Japan; nkhr@ 123456jikei.ac.jp (N.N.); sml@ 123456jikei.ac.jp (S.T.)
                [2 ]Department of Integrated Physiology, Kagawa Nutrition University, Saitama 350-0288, Japan; masako@ 123456eiyo.ac.jp
                [3 ]Department of Sports Medicine, Teikyo Heisei University, Chiba 290-0193, Japan; t.ohno@ 123456thu.ac.jp
                [4 ]Core Research Facilities for Basic Science, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo 105-8461, Japan; nakiyama@ 123456jikei.ac.jp
                [5 ]Spectroscopy and Imaging Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Hyogo 679-5198, Japan; yagi@ 123456spring8.or.jp
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: maki@ 123456jikei.ac.jp ; Tel.: +81-33433-1111
                Article
                ijms-21-03520
                10.3390/ijms21103520
                7278983
                32429250
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Molecular biology

                cardiomyopathy, x-ray diffraction, troponin, skinned fiber

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