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      The Role of Enoximone in the Treatment of Cardiogenic Shock

      research-article
      , ,
      Cardiology
      S. Karger AG
      Cardiogenic shock, Enoximone, Adrenergic agents

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          Abstract

          Low cardiac output in acute heart failure can result in a functional impairment of organs, when tissue hypoxia occurs and cardiogenic shock develops. To restore cardiac output, various forms of therapy can be considered. Fluid replacement is sometimes beneficial in acute situations where oedema can reduce effective plasma volume. Vasodilators are often contra-indicated in shock, when arterial pressure is usually low. Inotropic therapy consists primarily of the administration of adrenergic agents. Dopamine and noradrenaline can be indicated in severe hypotension, to maintain coronary perfusion. Dobutamine is the catecholamine of choice to increase myocardial contractility. However, decreased responsiveness of the myocardial receptors to adrenergic stimulation rapidly becomes an important limitation. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors represent an interesting option to increase contractility, also by increasing cyclic AMP levels in the myocardium. In this respect, the combination of phosphodiesterase inhibitors with adrenergic agents is attractive. The additional vasodilatory properties of these agents can contribute to the increase in cardiac output with limited risk of further reduction in arterial pressure. In 13 patiens with cardiogenic shock persisting despite the use of adrenergic agents, the addition of enoximone, 0.5 mg/kg, resulted in significant increases in cardiac index and stroke volume index and a significant decrease in pulmonary artery balloon occlusion pressure without consistent change in mean arterial pressure. In 8 patients, a second infusion of 0.5 g/kg amplified these effects. All but one of these patients survived the episode of cardiogenic shock, and 5 patients were discharged alive. In some cases, even lower doses of enoximone resulted in dramatic increases in cardiac output and oxygen transport in patients already treated with dobutamine with limited success.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          CRD
          Cardiology
          10.1159/issn.0008-6312
          Cardiology
          S. Karger AG
          978-3-8055-5255-4
          978-3-318-00032-0
          0008-6312
          1421-9751
          1990
          1990
          12 November 2008
          : 77
          : Suppl 3
          : 21-26
          Affiliations
          Department of Intensive Care and Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus University Hospital, Free University of Brussels, Belgium
          Article
          174667 Cardiology 1990;77:21–26
          10.1159/000174667
          2176130
          b3b30e18-030e-449f-893e-6ef41df1b5d1
          © 1990 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          History
          Page count
          Pages: 6
          Categories
          Paper

          General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
          Cardiogenic shock,Adrenergic agents,Enoximone

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