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      Photoacoustic-based visual servoing of a needle tip

      , 1 , 2 , 3 , 1

      Scientific Reports

      Nature Publishing Group UK

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          Abstract

          In intraoperative settings, the presence of acoustic clutter and reflection artifacts from metallic surgical tools often reduces the effectiveness of ultrasound imaging and complicates the localization of surgical tool tips. We propose an alternative approach for tool tracking and navigation in these challenging acoustic environments by augmenting ultrasound systems with a light source (to perform photoacoustic imaging) and a robot (to autonomously and robustly follow a surgical tool regardless of the tissue medium). The robotically controlled ultrasound probe continuously visualizes the location of the tool tip by segmenting and tracking photoacoustic signals generated from an optical fiber inside the tool. System validation in the presence of fat, muscle, brain, skull, and liver tissue with and without the presence of an additional clutter layer resulted in mean signal tracking errors <2 mm, mean probe centering errors <1 mm, and successful recovery from ultrasound perturbations, representing either patient motion or switching from photoacoustic images to ultrasound images to search for a target of interest. A detailed analysis of channel SNR in controlled experiments with and without significant acoustic clutter revealed that the detection of a needle tip is possible with photoacoustic imaging, particularly in cases where ultrasound imaging traditionally fails. Results show promise for guiding surgeries and procedures in acoustically challenging environments with this novel robotic and photoacoustic system combination.

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          Most cited references 51

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          Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

          In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3·4 million deaths, 3·9% of years of life lost, and 3·8% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) worldwide. The rise in obesity has led to widespread calls for regular monitoring of changes in overweight and obesity prevalence in all populations. Comparable, up-to-date information about levels and trends is essential to quantify population health effects and to prompt decision makers to prioritise action. We estimate the global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013. We systematically identified surveys, reports, and published studies (n=1769) that included data for height and weight, both through physical measurements and self-reports. We used mixed effects linear regression to correct for bias in self-reports. We obtained data for prevalence of obesity and overweight by age, sex, country, and year (n=19,244) with a spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression model to estimate prevalence with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). Worldwide, the proportion of adults with a body-mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m(2) or greater increased between 1980 and 2013 from 28·8% (95% UI 28·4-29·3) to 36·9% (36·3-37·4) in men, and from 29·8% (29·3-30·2) to 38·0% (37·5-38·5) in women. Prevalence has increased substantially in children and adolescents in developed countries; 23·8% (22·9-24·7) of boys and 22·6% (21·7-23·6) of girls were overweight or obese in 2013. The prevalence of overweight and obesity has also increased in children and adolescents in developing countries, from 8·1% (7·7-8·6) to 12·9% (12·3-13·5) in 2013 for boys and from 8·4% (8·1-8·8) to 13·4% (13·0-13·9) in girls. In adults, estimated prevalence of obesity exceeded 50% in men in Tonga and in women in Kuwait, Kiribati, Federated States of Micronesia, Libya, Qatar, Tonga, and Samoa. Since 2006, the increase in adult obesity in developed countries has slowed down. Because of the established health risks and substantial increases in prevalence, obesity has become a major global health challenge. Not only is obesity increasing, but no national success stories have been reported in the past 33 years. Urgent global action and leadership is needed to help countries to more effectively intervene. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Complications following percutaneous liver biopsy. A multicentre retrospective study on 68,276 biopsies.

            This paper reviews the complications that arose after 68 276 percutaneous liver biopsies performed from 1973 to 1983. The complications are analyzed in relation to the underlying liver disease and to the type of needle used. Death was infrequent (9/100 000); it was always due to haemoperitoneum and occurred only in patients with malignant diseases or cirrhosis. Complications were less frequent in AVH (44/100 000) than in other liver diseases (from 125 to 278/100 000). Death, serious haemorrhagic complications, pneumothorax and biliary peritonitis were more frequent after biopsy with the Trucut needle than after biopsy with Menghini's needle (3/1000 against 1/1000). Sixty-one percent of complications were discovered within two hours of biopsy and 96% within one day. The data indicate a post biopsy observation period of at least 24 hours. The day-case procedure should be reserved for patients not presenting liver tumour or cirrhosis.
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              A non-invasive method for focusing ultrasound through the human skull.

               G. Clement,  K Hynynen (2002)
              A technique for focusing ultrasound through the human skull is described and verified. The approach is based on a layered wavevector-frequency domain model, which propagates ultrasound from a hemisphere-shaped transducer through the skull using input from CT scans of the head. The algorithm calculates the driving phase of each transducer element in order to maximize the signal at the intended focus. This approach is tested on ten ex vivo human skulls using a 0.74 MHz, 320-element array. A stereotaxic reference frame is affixed to the skulls in order to provide accurate registration between the CT images and the transducer. The focal quality is assessed with a hydrophone placed inside the skull. In each trial the phase correction algorithm successfully restored the focus inside the skull at a location within 1 mm from the intended focal point. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using the method for completely non-invasive ultrasound brain surgery and therapy.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                mledijubell@jhu.edu
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                19 October 2018
                19 October 2018
                2018
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2171 9311, GRID grid.21107.35, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, ; Baltimore, MD 21218 USA
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2171 9311, GRID grid.21107.35, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, ; Baltimore, MD 21218 USA
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2171 9311, GRID grid.21107.35, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Computer Science, ; Baltimore, MD 21218 USA
                Article
                33931
                10.1038/s41598-018-33931-9
                6195562
                30341371
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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