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      The complex relationship between conscious/unconscious learning and conscious/unconscious knowledge: The mediating effects of salience in form–meaning connections

      1 , 2
      Second Language Research
      SAGE Publications

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          Abstract

          This study investigates how implicit and explicit learning and knowledge are associated, by focusing on the salience of target form–meaning connections. The participants were engaged in incidental learning of artificial determiner systems that included grammatical rules of [± plural] (a taught rule), [± actor] (a more salient hidden rule), and [± animate] (a less salient hidden rule). They completed immediate and delayed post-tests by means of a two-alternative forced-choice task with subjective judgments of source attributions. Awareness during the learning phase was identified through analysis of thinking aloud protocols. The results did not support a one-to-one relation between either explicit learning and conscious knowledge, or implicit learning and unconscious knowledge; rather, they indicated that implicit and explicit learning are intricately linked to conscious and unconscious knowledge mediated by the salience of form–meaning connections in target items. This result also suggests the possibility of the later emergence of knowledge without any conscious awareness of it.

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          Most cited references60

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          Bayesian t tests for accepting and rejecting the null hypothesis.

          Progress in science often comes from discovering invariances in relationships among variables; these invariances often correspond to null hypotheses. As is commonly known, it is not possible to state evidence for the null hypothesis in conventional significance testing. Here we highlight a Bayes factor alternative to the conventional t test that will allow researchers to express preference for either the null hypothesis or the alternative. The Bayes factor has a natural and straightforward interpretation, is based on reasonable assumptions, and has better properties than other methods of inference that have been advocated in the psychological literature. To facilitate use of the Bayes factor, we provide an easy-to-use, Web-based program that performs the necessary calculations.
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            The Role of Consciousness in Second Language Learning1

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              Bayesian Cognitive Modeling

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Second Language Research
                Second Language Research
                SAGE Publications
                0267-6583
                1477-0326
                April 2023
                September 15 2021
                April 2023
                : 39
                : 2
                : 425-446
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Chuo University, Japan
                [2 ]Nagoya University, Japan
                Article
                10.1177/02676583211044950
                b3cf79c4-a371-4689-b159-34960c786a15
                © 2023

                http://journals.sagepub.com/page/policies/text-and-data-mining-license

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