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      Biogastronomy: Factors that determine the biological response to meal ingestion

      1 , 2 , 3 , 1 , 2 , 3

      Neurogastroenterology & Motility

      Wiley

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          'Liking' and 'wanting' food rewards: brain substrates and roles in eating disorders.

          What brain reward systems mediate motivational 'wanting' and hedonic 'liking' for food rewards? And what roles do those systems play in eating disorders? This article surveys recent findings regarding brain mechanisms of hedonic 'liking', such as the existence of cubic-millimeter hedonic hotspots in nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum for opioid amplification of sensory pleasure. It also considers brain 'wanting' or incentive salience systems important to appetite, such as mesolimbic dopamine systems and opioid motivation circuits that extend beyond the hedonic hotspots. Finally, it considers some potential ways in which 'wanting' and 'liking' might relate to eating disorders.
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            The cell biology of taste

            Taste buds are aggregates of 50–100 polarized neuroepithelial cells that detect nutrients and other compounds. Combined analyses of gene expression and cellular function reveal an elegant cellular organization within the taste bud. This review discusses the functional classes of taste cells, their cell biology, and current thinking on how taste information is transmitted to the brain.
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              Physiological role of pleasure.

               M Cabanac (1971)
              A given stimulus can induce a pleasant or unpleasant sensation depending on the subject's internal state. The word alliesthesia is proposed to describe this phenomenon. It is, in itself, an adequate motivation for behavior such as food intake or thermoregulation. Therefore, negative regulatory feedback systems, based upon oropharingeal or cutaneous thermal signals are peripheral only in appearance, since the motivational component of the sensation is of internal origin. The internal signals seem to be complex and related to the set points of some regulated variables of the "milieu interieur," like set internal temperature in the case of thermal sensation (15). Alliesthesia can therefore explain the adaptation of these behaviors to their goals. Only three sensations have been studied- thermal, gustatory, and olfactory, but it is probable that alliesthesia also exists in such simple ways as in bringing a signal, usually ignored, to the subject's attention. For example, gastric contractions, not normally perceived, are felt in the state of hunger (16). Since alliesthesia relies on an internal input, it is possible that alliesthesia exists only with sensations related to some constants of the "milieu interieur" and therefore would not exist in visual or auditory sensations. As a matter of fact, luminous or auditory stimuli can be pleasing or displeasing in themselves, but there seems to be little variation of pleasure in these sensations, that is, no alliesthesia. There may be some esthetic value linked to these stimuli but it is a striking coincidence that they are in themselves rather neutral and that it is difficult to imagine a constant of the "milieu interieur" which could be possibly modified by a visual or an auditive stimulus-such as light of a certain wavelength or sound of a given frequency. In the light of this theory, it is possible to reconsider the nature of the whole conscious experience. The existence of alliesthesia implies the presence of internal signals modifying the concious sensations aroused from peripheral receptors. It is therefore necessary to question the existence of sensations aroused by direct stimulation of central receptors, such as hypothalamic temperature detectors, osmoreceptors, and others. Does their excitation arouse sensations of their own, or does the sensation have to pass through peripheral senses? Only human experimentation could answer this question. In the same way, it is possible that selfstimulation of the brain is pleasant, not by giving a sensation in itself, but because the electrical stimulus (17), renders peripheral stimuli pleasant.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Neurogastroenterology & Motility
                Neurogastroenterol Motil
                Wiley
                13501925
                July 2018
                July 2018
                February 02 2018
                : 30
                : 7
                : e13309
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Digestive System Research Unit; University Hospital Vall d'Hebron; Barcelona Spain
                [2 ]Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (Ciberehd); Barcelona Spain
                [3 ]Departament de Medicina; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona; Barcelona Spain
                Article
                10.1111/nmo.13309
                © 2018

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