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      Risk Factors for Internet Gaming Disorder: Psychological Factors and Internet Gaming Characteristics

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          Background: Understanding the risk factors associated with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is important to predict and diagnose the condition. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors that predict IGD based on psychological factors and Internet gaming characteristics; Methods: Online surveys were conducted between 26 November and 26 December 2014. There were 3568 Korean Internet game users among a total of 5003 respondents. We identified 481 IGD gamers and 3087 normal Internet gamers, based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify significant risk factors for IGD; Results: The following eight risk factors were found to be significantly associated with IGD: functional and dysfunctional impulsivity (odds ratio: 1.138), belief self-control (1.034), anxiety (1.086), pursuit of desired appetitive goals (1.105), money spent on gaming (1.005), weekday game time (1.081), offline community meeting attendance (2.060), and game community membership (1.393; p < 0.05 for all eight risk factors); Conclusions: These risk factors allow for the prediction and diagnosis of IGD. In the future, these risk factors could also be used to inform clinical services for IGD diagnosis and treatment.

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          An international consensus for assessing internet gaming disorder using the new DSM-5 approach.

          For the first time, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) introduces non-substance addictions as psychiatric diagnoses. The aims of this paper are to (i) present the main controversies surrounding the decision to include internet gaming disorder, but not internet addiction more globally, as a non-substance addiction in the research appendix of the DSM-5, and (ii) discuss the meaning behind the DSM-5 criteria for internet gaming disorder. The paper also proposes a common method for assessing internet gaming disorder. Although the need for common diagnostic criteria is not debated, the existence of multiple instruments reflect the divergence of opinions in the field regarding how best to diagnose this condition. We convened international experts from European, North and South American, Asian and Australasian countries to discuss and achieve consensus about assessing internet gaming disorder as defined within DSM-5. We describe the intended meaning behind each of the nine DSM-5 criteria for internet gaming disorder and present a single item that best reflects each criterion, translated into the 10 main languages of countries in which research on this condition has been conducted. Using results from this cross-cultural collaboration, we outline important research directions for understanding and assessing internet gaming disorder. As this field moves forward, it is critical that researchers and clinicians around the world begin to apply a common methodology; this report is the first to achieve an international consensus related to the assessment of internet gaming disorder. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.
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            Problematic smartphone use: A conceptual overview and systematic review of relations with anxiety and depression psychopathology.

            Research literature on problematic smartphone use, or smartphone addiction, has proliferated. However, relationships with existing categories of psychopathology are not well defined. We discuss the concept of problematic smartphone use, including possible causal pathways to such use.
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              Internet gaming disorder and the DSM-5.

               N Petry,  C. O’Brien (2013)

                Author and article information

                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                27 December 2017
                January 2018
                : 15
                : 1
                [1 ]Department of Medical Informatics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea; rhomijung@ 123456gmail.com
                [2 ]Catholic Institute for Healthcare Management and Graduate School of Healthcare Management and Policy, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea
                [3 ]Department of Industrial & Management Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 37673, Korea; hyelee@ 123456postech.ac.kr (H.L.); dlxorgh2@ 123456postech.ac.kr (T.-H.L.)
                [4 ]Department of Psychology, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea; sonap1@ 123456hanmail.net
                [5 ]Addiction Research Institute, Department of Psychiatry, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea; forever0851@ 123456naver.com
                [6 ]Department of Psychiatry, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: kdj922@ 123456catholic.ac.kr (D.-J.K.); iychoi@ 123456catholic.ac.kr (I.Y.C.); Tel.: +82-2-2258-6086 (D.-J.K.); +82-2-2258-7870 (I.Y.C.)

                Both authors contributed equally to this work.


                Both corresponding authors contributed equally to this work.

                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).



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