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      Hypomagnesemia: a clinical perspective

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          Abstract

          Although magnesium is involved in a wide spectrum of vital functions in normal human physiology, the significance of hypomagnesemia and necessity for its treatment are under-recognized and underappreciated in clinical practice. In the current review, we first present an overview of the clinical significance of hypomagnesemia and normal magnesium metabolism, with a focus on renal magnesium handling. Subsequently, we review the literature for both congenital and acquired hypomagnesemic conditions that affect the various steps in normal magnesium metabolism. Finally, we present an approach to the routine evaluation and suggested management of hypomagnesemia.

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          Magnesium metabolism and its disorders.

          Magnesium is the fourth most abundant cation in the body and plays an important physiological role in many of its functions. Magnesium balance is maintained by renal regulation of magnesium reabsorption. The exact mechanism of the renal regulation is not fully understood. Magnesium deficiency is a common problem in hospital patients, with a prevalence of about 10%. There are no readily available and easy methods to assess magnesium status. Serum magnesium and the magnesium tolerance test are the most widely used. Measurement of ionised magnesium may become more widely available with the availability of ion selective electrodes. Magnesium deficiency and hypomagnesaemia can result from a variety of causes including gastrointestinal and renal losses. Magnesium deficiency can cause a wide variety of features including hypocalcaemia, hypokalaemia and cardiac and neurological manifestations. Chronic low magnesium state has been associated with a number of chronic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and osteoporosis. The use of magnesium as a therapeutic agent in asthma, myocardial infarction, and pre-eclampsia is also discussed. Hypermagnesaemia is less frequent than hypomagnesaemia and results from failure of excretion or increased intake. Hypermagnesaemia can lead to hypotension and other cardiovascular effects as well as neuromuscular manifestations. Causes and management of hypermagnesaemia are discussed.
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            Hypomagnesemia in patients with type 2 diabetes.

            Hypomagnesemia has been reported to occur at an increased frequency among patients with type 2 diabetes compared with their counterparts without diabetes. Despite numerous reports linking hypomagnesemia to chronic diabetic complications, attention to this issue is poor among clinicians. This article reviews the literature on the metabolism of magnesium, incidence of hypomagnesemia in patients with type 2 diabetes, implicated contributing factors, and associated complications. Hypomagnesemia occurs at an incidence of 13.5 to 47.7% among patients with type 2 diabetes. Poor dietary intake, autonomic dysfunction, altered insulin metabolism, glomerular hyperfiltration, osmotic diuresis, recurrent metabolic acidosis, hypophosphatemia, and hypokalemia may be contributory. Hypomagnesemia has been linked to poor glycemic control, coronary artery diseases, hypertension, diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and foot ulcerations. The increased incidence of hypomagnesemia among patients with type 2 diabetes presumably is multifactorial. Because current data suggest adverse outcomes in association with hypomagnesemia, it is prudent to monitor magnesium routinely in this patient population and treat the condition whenever possible.
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              Potassium channel KIR4.1 as an immune target in multiple sclerosis.

              Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Many findings suggest that the disease has an autoimmune pathogenesis; the target of the immune response is not yet known. We screened serum IgG from persons with multiple sclerosis to identify antibodies that are capable of binding to brain tissue and observed specific binding of IgG to glial cells in a subgroup of patients. Using a proteomic approach focusing on membrane proteins, we identified the ATP-sensitive inward rectifying potassium channel KIR4.1 as the target of the IgG antibodies. We used a multifaceted validation strategy to confirm KIR4.1 as a target of the autoantibody response in multiple sclerosis and to show its potential pathogenicity in vivo. Serum levels of antibodies to KIR4.1 were higher in persons with multiple sclerosis than in persons with other neurologic diseases and healthy donors (P<0.001 for both comparisons). We replicated this finding in two independent groups of persons with multiple sclerosis or other neurologic diseases (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Analysis of the combined data sets indicated the presence of serum antibodies to KIR4.1 in 186 of 397 persons with multiple sclerosis (46.9%), in 3 of 329 persons with other neurologic diseases (0.9%), and in none of the 59 healthy donors. These antibodies bound to the first extracellular loop of KIR4.1. Injection of KIR4.1 serum IgG into the cisternae magnae of mice led to a profound loss of KIR4.1 expression, altered expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes, and activation of the complement cascade at sites of KIR4.1 expression in the cerebellum. KIR4.1 is a target of the autoantibody response in a subgroup of persons with multiple sclerosis. (Funded by the German Ministry for Education and Research and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis
                Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis
                International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
                International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7058
                2014
                09 June 2014
                : 7
                : 219-230
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Olive View–UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
                [2 ]Veterans Administration Central California Health Care System, Fresno, CA, USA
                [3 ]South Texas Veterans Health Care System and University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USA
                [4 ]Pennsylvania State University Wilkes-Barre, Lehman, PA, USA
                [5 ]Greater Los Angeles Veterans Administration, Sepulveda, CA, USA
                [6 ]David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Phuong-Chi T Pham, Olive View–UCLA Medical Center, 14445 Olive View Drive, 2B-182, Sylmar, CA 91342, USA, Email pham.pchi@ 123456ucla.edu
                Article
                ijnrd-7-219
                10.2147/IJNRD.S42054
                4062555
                24966690
                b3d5d9d3-45f3-49f1-a786-6dbbbb04733f
                © 2014 Pham et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Nephrology

                hypomagnesemia, magnesium, diabetes mellitus, alcohol, trpm6, cisplatin

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