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      Distribution of endemic angiosperm species in Brazil on a municipality level

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          Abstract

          Background

          Herbarium collections and the data they hold are the main sources of plant biodiversity information. These collections contain taxonomical and spatial data on living and extinct species; consequently, they are the fundamental basis for temporal and spatial biogeographical studies of plants. Mega projects focused on providing digital and free access to accurate biodiversity data have transformed plant science research, mainly in the past two decades. In this sense, researchers today are overwhelmed by the many different datasets in online repositories. There are also several challenges involved in using these data for biogeographical analyses. Analyses performed on the data available in the repositories show that 70-75% of the total amount of data have spatial deficiencies and a high number of records lack coordinates. This shortage of reliable primary biogeographical information creates serious impediments for biogeographical analyses and conservation assessments and taxonomic revisions consequently produces obstacles for evaluations of threats to biodiversity at global, regional and local levels. With the aim of contributing to botanical and biogeographical research, this paper provides georeferenced spatial data for angiosperm species endemic to Brazil. The information from two reliable online databases, i.e. the Flora do Brasil 2020 floristic database (BFG) and Plantas do Brasil: Resgate Histórico e Herbário Virtual para o Conhecimento e Conservação da Flora Brasileira (REFLORA), which are both based on records collected over the course of the last two centuries, is used to create this spatial dataset.

          New information

          We provide three taxonomically-edited and georeferenced datasets for basal angiosperms, monocots and eudicots, covering a total of 14,992 endemic species from Brazil. Producing this consolidated dataset involved several months of detailed revision of coordinates and nomenclaturally updating of the names in these datasets. The information provided in this geo-referenced dataset, covering two centuries of specimen collections, will contribute to several botanical and mainly biogeographical studies.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 29

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          New developments in museum-based informatics and applications in biodiversity analysis.

          Information from natural history collections (NHCs) about the diversity, taxonomy and historical distributions of species worldwide is becoming increasingly available over the Internet. In light of this relatively new and rapidly increasing resource, we critically review its utility and limitations for addressing a diverse array of applications. When integrated with spatial environmental data, NHC data can be used to study a broad range of topics, from aspects of ecological and evolutionary theory, to applications in conservation, agriculture and human health. There are challenges inherent to using NHC data, such as taxonomic inaccuracies and biases in the spatial coverage of data, which require consideration. Promising research frontiers include the integration of NHC data with information from comparative genomics and phylogenetics, and stronger connections between the environmental analysis of NHC data and experimental and field-based tests of hypotheses.
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            An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV

            (2016)
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              Biogeographical regionalisation of the Neotropical region

               Juan Morrone (2014)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Biodivers Data J
                Biodivers Data J
                1
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:F9B2E808-C883-5F47-B276-6D62129E4FF4
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:245B00E9-BFE5-4B4F-B76E-15C30BA74C02
                Biodiversity Data Journal
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2836
                1314-2828
                2021
                03 June 2021
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Instituto de Pesquisas do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Instituto de Pesquisas do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro Brazil
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Janaína Gomes-da-Silva ( jgomes_da_silva@ 123456yahoo.com.br ).

                Academic editor: Quentin Groom

                Article
                66043 15676
                10.3897/BDJ.9.e66043
                8192407
                Janaína Gomes-da-Silva, Joâo Lanna, Rafaela Campostrini Forzza

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 0, References: 29
                Categories
                Data Paper (Biosciences)
                Core Eudicots: Asterids
                Basal Eudicots
                Core Eudicots
                Core Eudicots: Rosids
                Basal Angiosperms: Non-Monocots
                Angiospermae
                Basal Angiosperms: Monocots
                Biogeography
                South America
                Americas

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