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      Observation of an E2 (Ubc9)-homodimer by crystallography


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          Post-translational modifications by the small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO), in particular the formation of poly-SUMO-2 and -3 chains, regulates essential cellular functions and its aberration leads to life-threatening diseases (Geoffroy and Hay, 2009) [1]. It was shown previously that the non-covalent interaction between SUMO and the conjugating enzyme (E2) for SUMO, known as Ubc9, is required for poly-SUMO-2/3 chain formation (Knipscheer et al., 2007) [2]. However, the structure of SUMO-Ubc9 non-covalent complex, by itself, could not explain how the poly-SUMO-2/3 chain forms and consequently a Ubc9 homodimer, although never been observed, was proposed for poly-SUMO-2/3 chain formation (Knipscheer et al., 2007) [2]. Here, we solved the crystal structure of a heterotrimer containing a homodimer of Ubc9 and the RWD domain from RWDD3. The asymmetric Ubc9 homodimer is mediated by the N-terminal region of one Ubc9 molecule and a surface near the catalytic Cys of the second Ubc9 molecule ( Fig. 1A). This N-terminal surface of Ubc9 that is involved in the homodimer formation also interacts with the RWD domain, the ubiquitin-fold domain of the SUMO activating enzyme (E1), SUMO, and the E3 ligase, RanBP2 (Knipscheer et al., 2007; Tong et al.. 1997; Tatham et al., 2005; Reverter and Lima, 2005; Capili and Lima, 2007; Wang et al., 2009, 2010; Wang and Chen, 2010; Alontaga et al., 2015) [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10]. The existence of the Ubc9 homodimer in solution is supported by previously published solution NMR studies of rotational correlation time and chemical shift perturbation (Alontaga et al., 2015; Yuan et al., 1999) [10], [11]. Site-directed mutagenesis and biochemical analysis suggests that this dimeric arrangement of Ubc9 is likely important for poly-SUMO chain formation ( Fig. 1B and C). The asymmetric Ubc9 homodimer described for the first time in this work could provide the critical missing link in the poly-SUMO chain formation mechanism. The data presented here are related to the research article entitled, “RWD domain as an E2 (Ubc9) interaction module” (Alontaga et al., 2015) [10]. The data of the crystal structure has been deposited to RCSB protein data bank with identifier: 4Y1L.

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          Insights into E3 ligase activity revealed by a SUMO-RanGAP1-Ubc9-Nup358 complex.

          SUMO-1 (for small ubiquitin-related modifier) belongs to the ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin-like (Ubl) protein family. SUMO conjugation occurs on specific lysine residues within protein targets, regulating pathways involved in differentiation, apoptosis, the cell cycle and responses to stress by altering protein function through changes in activity or cellular localization or by protecting substrates from ubiquitination. Ub/Ubl conjugation occurs in sequential steps and requires the concerted action of E2 conjugating proteins and E3 ligases. In addition to being a SUMO E3, the nucleoporin Nup358/RanBP2 localizes SUMO-conjugated RanGAP1 to the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear pore complex by means of interactions in a complex that also includes Ubc9, the SUMO E2 conjugating protein. Here we describe the 3.0-A crystal structure of a four-protein complex of Ubc9, a Nup358/RanBP2 E3 ligase domain (IR1-M) and SUMO-1 conjugated to the carboxy-terminal domain of RanGAP1. Structural insights, combined with biochemical and kinetic data obtained with additional substrates, support a model in which Nup358/RanBP2 acts as an E3 by binding both SUMO and Ubc9 to position the SUMO-E2-thioester in an optimal orientation to enhance conjugation.
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            Structural basis for recruitment of Ubc12 by an E2 binding domain in NEDD8's E1.

            E2 conjugating enzymes play a central role in ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like protein (ublp) transfer cascades: the E2 accepts the ublp from the E1 enzyme and then the E2 often interacts with an E3 enzyme to promote ublp transfer to the target. We report here the crystal structure of a complex between the C-terminal domain from NEDD8's heterodimeric E1 (APPBP1-UBA3) and the catalytic core domain of NEDD8's E2 (Ubc12). The structure and associated mutational analyses reveal molecular details of Ubc12 recruitment by NEDD8's E1. Interestingly, the E1's Ubc12 binding domain resembles ubiquitin and recruits Ubc12 in a manner mimicking ubiquitin's interactions with ubiquitin binding domains. Structural comparison with E2-E3 complexes indicates that the E1 and E3 binding sites on Ubc12 may overlap and raises the possibility that crosstalk between E1 and E3 interacting with an E2 could influence the specificity and processivity of ublp transfer.
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              Structure and analysis of a complex between SUMO and Ubc9 illustrates features of a conserved E2-Ubl interaction.

              The SUMO E2 Ubc9 serves as a lynchpin in the SUMO conjugation pathway, interacting with the SUMO E1 during activation, with thioester linked SUMO after E1 transfer and with the substrate and SUMO E3 ligases during conjugation. Here, we describe the structure determination of a non-covalent complex between human Ubc9 and SUMO-1 at 2.4 A resolution. Non-covalent interactions between Ubc9 and SUMO are conserved in human and yeast insomuch as human Ubc9 interacts with each of the human SUMO isoforms, and yeast Ubc9 interacts with Smt3, the yeast SUMO ortholog. Structural comparisons reveal similarities to several other non-covalent complexes in the ubiquitin pathway, suggesting that the non-covalent Ubc9-SUMO interface may be important for poly-SUMO chain formation, for E2 recruitment to SUMO conjugated substrates, or for mediating E2 interactions with either E1 or E3 ligases. Biochemical analysis suggests that this surface is less important for E1 activation or di-SUMO-2 formation, but more important for E3 interactions and for poly-SUMO chain formation when the chain exceeds more than two SUMO proteins.

                Author and article information

                Data Brief
                Data Brief
                Data in Brief
                12 February 2016
                June 2016
                12 February 2016
                : 7
                : 195-200
                [0005]Department of Molecular Medicine, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, 1450 East Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010, United States
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 626 930 5408; fax: +1 626 301 8186. ychen@ 123456coh.org
                © 2016 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 28 July 2015
                : 19 December 2015
                : 4 February 2016
                Data Article

                sumo,poly-sumo chain,rwd,ubiquitin,ubc9,e1,ubiquitin-like,modifications
                sumo, poly-sumo chain, rwd, ubiquitin, ubc9, e1, ubiquitin-like, modifications


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