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      Food Environment Typology: Advancing an Expanded Definition, Framework, and Methodological Approach for Improved Characterization of Wild, Cultivated, and Built Food Environments toward Sustainable Diets

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          Abstract

          The food environment is a critical place in the food system to implement interventions to support sustainable diets and address the global syndemic of obesity, undernutrition, and climate change, because it contains the total scope of options within which consumers make decisions about which foods to acquire and consume. In this paper, we build on existing definitions of the food environment, and provide an expanded definition that includes the parameter of sustainability properties of foods and beverages, in order to integrate linkages between food environments and sustainable diets. We further provide a graphical representation of the food environment using a socio-ecological framework. Next, we provide a typology with descriptions of the different types of food environments that consumers have access to in low-, middle-, and high-income countries including wild, cultivated, and built food environments. We characterize the availability, affordability, convenience, promotion and quality (previously termed desirability), and sustainability properties of food and beverages for each food environment type. Lastly, we identify a methodological approach with potential objective and subjective tools and metrics for measuring the different properties of various types of food environments. The definition, framework, typology, and methodological toolbox presented here are intended to facilitate scholars and practitioners to identify entry points in the food environment for implementing and evaluating interventions that support sustainable diets for enhancing human and planetary health.

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          Neighborhood characteristics associated with the location of food stores and food service places

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            Leverage points for improving global food security and the environment.

            Achieving sustainable global food security is one of humanity's contemporary challenges. Here we present an analysis identifying key "global leverage points" that offer the best opportunities to improve both global food security and environmental sustainability. We find that a relatively small set of places and actions could provide enough new calories to meet the basic needs for more than 3 billion people, address many environmental impacts with global consequences, and focus food waste reduction on the commodities with the greatest impact on food security. These leverage points in the global food system can help guide how nongovernmental organizations, foundations, governments, citizens' groups, and businesses prioritize actions. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
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              Concepts and critical perspectives for food environment research: A global framework with implications for action in low- and middle-income countries

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Foods
                Foods
                foods
                Foods
                MDPI
                2304-8158
                22 April 2020
                April 2020
                : 9
                : 4
                : 532
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Urban-Global Public Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 07102, USA; sd1081@ 123456sph.rutgers.edu
                [2 ]Sustainable Food Systems Program, Department of Health and Human Development, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
                [3 ]Berman Institute of Bioethics, Nitze School of Advanced International Studies and Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Washington, DC 21205, USA; jfanzo1@ 123456jhu.edu
                [4 ]Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard, University Boston, MA 02125, USA; aherforth@ 123456hsph.harvard.edu
                Author notes
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5779-0697
                Article
                foods-09-00532
                10.3390/foods9040532
                7230632
                32331424
                b3f37dfb-6332-4331-ae51-1d3763dab518
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 12 February 2020
                : 10 April 2020
                Categories
                Concept Paper

                sustainable diets,natural food environments,built food environments,socio-ecological framework,climate change

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