Blog
About

0
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System: Approaches to Guide Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Drugs that modulate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) play an important role in modern cardiovascular prevention strategies. Inhibitors of the RAAS, in particular angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, have been proven to be beneficial in specific patient groups, including patients with hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus and stable coronary artery disease. Although clinical trials demonstrated a rather consistent beneficial effect of ACE inhibitors across groups of patients based on clinical characteristics, the variability in treatment response on the individual patient level is extensive. Recent publications suggest that genetic polymorphisms in the RAAS are related to cardiovascular risk. Genetic variability also seems associated with the response to ACE inhibitor therapy, and can probably be used to tailor treatment. This review discusses several approaches to guide ACE inhibitor therapy in patients with coronary artery disease. In addition, the potential impact of pharmacogenetics regarding this particular topic is highlighted.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 37

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition in stable coronary artery disease.

           Judith Hsia,  ,  Bernard Gersh (2004)
          Angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are effective in reducing the risk of heart failure, myocardial infarction, and death from cardiovascular causes in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction or heart failure. ACE inhibitors have also been shown to reduce atherosclerotic complications in patients who have vascular disease without heart failure. In the Prevention of Events with Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibition (PEACE) Trial, we tested the hypothesis that patients with stable coronary artery disease and normal or slightly reduced left ventricular function derive therapeutic benefit from the addition of ACE inhibitors to modern conventional therapy. The trial was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which 8290 patients were randomly assigned to receive either trandolapril at a target dose of 4 mg per day (4158 patients) or matching placebo (4132 patients). The mean (+/-SD) age of the patients was 64+/-8 years, the mean blood pressure 133+/-17/78+/-10 mm Hg, and the mean left ventricular ejection fraction 58+/-9 percent. The patients received intensive treatment, with 72 percent having previously undergone coronary revascularization and 70 percent receiving lipid-lowering drugs. The incidence of the primary end point--death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or coronary revascularization--was 21.9 percent in the trandolapril group, as compared with 22.5 percent in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the trandolapril group, 0.96; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.88 to 1.06; P=0.43) over a median follow-up period of 4.8 years. In patients with stable coronary heart disease and preserved left ventricular function who are receiving "current standard" therapy and in whom the rate of cardiovascular events is lower than in previous trials of ACE inhibitors in patients with vascular disease, there is no evidence that the addition of an ACE inhibitor provides further benefit in terms of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or coronary revascularization. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

            ACE inhibitors have achieved widespread usage in the treatment of cardiovascular and renal disease. ACE inhibitors alter the balance between the vasoconstrictive, salt-retentive, and hypertrophic properties of angiotensin II (Ang II) and the vasodilatory and natriuretic properties of bradykinin and alter the metabolism of a number of other vasoactive substances. ACE inhibitors differ in the chemical structure of their active moieties, in potency, in bioavailability, in plasma half-life, in route of elimination, in their distribution and affinity for tissue-bound ACE, and in whether they are administered as prodrugs. Thus, the side effects of ACE inhibitors can be divided into those that are class specific and those that relate to specific agents. ACE inhibitors decrease systemic vascular resistance without increasing heart rate and promote natriuresis. They have proved effective in the treatment of hypertension, they decrease mortality in congestive heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction, and they delay the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Ongoing studies will elucidate the effect of ACE inhibitors on cardiovascular mortality in essential hypertension, the role of ACE inhibitors in patients without ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction, and the role of ACE inhibitors compared with newly available angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonists.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              A prospective evaluation of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme gene polymorphism and the risk of ischemic heart disease.

              In a previous study, men with a history of myocardial infarction were found to have an increased prevalence of homozygosity for the deletional allele (D) of the angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) gene. The D allele is associated with higher levels of ACE, which may predispose a person to ischemic heart disease. We investigated the association between the ACE genotype and the incidence of myocardial infarction, as well as other manifestations of ischemic heart disease, in a large, prospective cohort of U.S. male physicians. In the Physicians' Health Study, ischemic heart disease as defined by angina, coronary revascularization, or myocardial infarction developed in 1250 men by 1992. They were matched with 2340 controls according to age and smoking history. Zygosity for the deletion-insertion (D-I) polymorphism of the ACE gene was determined by an assay based on the polymerase chain reaction. Data were analyzed for both matched pairs and unmatched samples, with adjustment for the effects of known or suspected risk factors by conditional and nonconditional logistic regression, respectively. The ACE genotype was not associated with the occurrence of either ischemic heart disease or myocardial infarction. The adjusted relative risk associated with the D allele was 1.07 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.96 to 1.19; P = 0.24) for ischemic heart disease and 1.05 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.89 to 1.25; P = 0.56) for myocardial infarction, if an additive mode of inheritance is assumed. Additional analyses assuming dominant and recessive effects of the D allele also failed to show any association, as did the examination of low-risk subgroups. In a large, prospectively followed population of U.S. male physicians, the presence of the D allele of the ACE gene conferred no appreciable increase in the risk of ischemic heart disease or myocardial infarction.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2009
                March 2009
                02 October 2008
                : 112
                : 4
                : 303-312
                Affiliations
                aThoraxcenter, Department of Cardiology, and bDepartment of Pharmacology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                Article
                159124 Cardiology 2009;112:303–312
                10.1159/000159124
                18832826
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 63, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Review

                Comments

                Comment on this article

                Similar content 707

                Cited by 3

                Most referenced authors 1,125