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      Helminth parasites of fish and shellfish from the Santa Gilla Lagoon in southern Sardinia, Italy

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          Abstract

          An extensive survey of helminth parasites in fish and shellfish species from Santa Gilla, a brackish water lagoon in southern Sardinia (western Mediterranean), resulted in the identification of 69 helminth parasite taxa and/or species from 13 fish species ( n= 515) and seven bivalve species ( n= 2322) examined between September 2001 and July 2011. The list summarizes information on the helminth parasites harboured by fish and molluscs contained in the available literature. Digenea species (37), both adults and larvae, dominated the parasite fauna, whereas Cestoda were the least represented class (three species). Monogenea, Nematoda and Acanthocephala were present with 17, 6 and 6 species, respectively, which were mainly adults. The most widespread parasite species was the generalist Contracaecum rudolphii A (Nematoda). Other species, such as the Haploporidae and Ascocotyle ( Phagicola) spp. 1 and 2 (Digenea), showed a high family specificity in Mugilidae. Importantly, the study recorded the occurrence of potential zoonotic agents, such as Heterophyes heterophyes, Ascocotyle ( Phagicola) spp. and C. rudolphii A, the latter two reaching the highest indices of infection in the highly marketed fish grey mullet and sea bass, respectively. The highest parasite richness was detected in Dicentrarchus labrax, which harboured 17 helminth species, whereas the lowest value was observed in Atherina boyeri, infected by only three species. The list includes the first geographical record in Italian coastal waters of Robinia aurata and Stictodora sawakinensis, and 30 reports of new host–parasite complexes, including the larval stages of Ascocotyle ( Ascocotyle) sp. and Southwellina hispida in D. labrax.

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          A new species of Spauligodon (Nematoda: Oxyuroidea: Pharyngodonidae) in Cyrtodactylus bintangrensis (Sauria: Gekkonidae) from Peninsular Malaysia

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            Patterns in helminth communities in freshwater fish in Great Britain: alternative strategies for colonization.

            Examples of the apparently stochastic nature of freshwater fish helminth communities illustrating the erratic and unpredictable occurrence and distribution of many species are provided for six species of fish from several localities throughout Britain. By focussing on parasite colonization strategies two categories of helminths are recognized: autogenic species which mature in fish and allogenic species which mature in vertebrates other than fish and have a greater colonization potential and ability. Three groups of fish are distinguished: salmonids, in which helminth communities are generally dominated by autogenic species which are also responsible for most of the similarity within and between localities; cyprinids, in which they are dominated by allogenic species which are also responsible for most of the similarity within and between localities; and anguillids, whose helminth communities exhibit intermediate features with neither category consistently dominating nor providing a clear pattern of similarity. Recognition and appreciation of the different colonization strategies of autogenic and allogenic helminths in respect of host vagility and ability to cross land or sea barriers and break down habitat isolation, and their period of residence in a locality, whether transient or permanent, provides an understanding of, and explanation for, the observed patchy spatial distribution of many helminths. Comparison with other parts of the world indicates that colonization is a major determinant of helminth community structure.
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              Food-borne intestinal trematodiases in humans.

              Food-borne trematodiases still remain a public health problem world-wide, despite changes in eating habits, alterations in social and agricultural practices, health education, industrialization, environmental alteration, and broad-spectrum anthelmintics. Food-borne trematodiases usually occur focally, are still persistently endemic in some parts of the world, and are most prevalent in remote rural places among school-age children, low-wage earners, and women of child-bearing age. Intestinal fluke diseases are aggravated by socio-economic factors such as poverty, malnutrition, an explosively growing free-food market, a lack of sufficient food inspection and sanitation, other helminthiases, and declining economic conditions. Control programs implemented for food-borne zoonoses and sustained in endemic areas are not fully successful for intestinal food-borne trematodiases because of centuries-old traditions of eating raw or insufficiently cooked food, widespread zoonotic reservoirs, promiscuous defecation, and the use of "night soil" (human excrement collected from latrines) as fertilizer. This review examines food-borne intestinal trematodiases associated with species in families of the Digenea: Brachylaimidae, Diplostomidae, Echinostomatidae, Fasciolidae, Gastrodiscidae, Gymnophallidae, Heterophyidae, Lecithodendriidae, Microphallidae, Nanophyetidae, Paramphistomatidae, Plagiorchiidae, and Strigeidae. Because most of the implicated species are in the Echinostomatidae and Heterophyidae, emphasis in the review is placed on species in these families.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Helminthology
                J. Helminthol.
                Cambridge University Press (CUP)
                0022-149X
                1475-2697
                December 2014
                June 21 2013
                December 2014
                : 88
                : 4
                : 489-498
                Article
                10.1017/S0022149X13000461
                © 2014

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