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      Mesangial Proliferative Nephritis in Man Is Associated with Increased Expression of the Cell Survival Factor, Bcl-2

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          Abstract

          Although most studies suggest that the hypercellularity in mesangial proliferative nephritis is due to increased cell proliferation, we hypothesized that it may also be due to increased expression of survival factors that may block their removal (apoptosis). We therefore studied the expression of apoptosis preventing/delaying the bcl-2 gene product in the glomerulus with various human glomerulonephritides. Immunohistochemistry for Bcl-2, proliferating cell associated protein (Ki-67) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was performed on 55 biopsied kidney tissues: 6 cases of orthostatic proteinuria as a control (OP); 6 cases of diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis (WHO type IV, LN-MPGN); 24 cases of IgA nephropathy (IgA); 9 cases of minimal change nephrosis and 10 cases of idiopathic membranous nephropathy. The number of Ki-67-positive cells and the expression of α-SMA in the glomerulus were significantly higher in LN-MPGN and IgA. There was a significant positive correlation between glomerular Bcl-2 expression and glomerular cell proliferation evaluated by the number of Ki-67-positive cells (r = 0.605, p < 0.01) or glomerular α-SMA expression (r = 0.674, p < 0.01). Glomerular expression of Bcl-2 in IgA or LN-MPGN was significantly higher than that in OP (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 vs. OP, respectively). The Bcl-2-positive cells were present in mesangial locations and demonstrated a perinuclear pattern. These results suggest that maintenance of glomerular hypercellularity in human glomerular diseases is partly due to the prevention of mesangial cell death via Bcl-2 expression.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Bcl-2 gene promotes haemopoietic cell survival and cooperates with c-myc to immortalize pre-B cells.

          A common feature of follicular lymphoma, the most prevalent haematological malignancy in humans, is a chromosome translocation (t(14;18] that has coupled the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus to a chromosome 18 gene denoted bcl-2. By analogy with the translocated c-myc oncogene in other B-lymphoid tumours bcl-2 is a candidate oncogene, but no biological effects of bcl-2 have yet been reported. To test whether bcl-2 influences the growth of haematopoietic cells, either alone or together with a deregulated c-myc gene, we have introduced a human bcl-2 complementary DNA using a retroviral vector into bone marrow cells from either normal or E mu-myc transgenic mice, in which B-lineage cells constitutively express the c-myc gene. Bcl-2 cooperated with c-myc to promote proliferation of B-cell precursors, some of which became tumorigenic. To determine how bcl-2 expression impinges on growth factor requirements, the gene was introduced into a lymphoid and a myeloid cell line that require interleukin 3 (IL-3). In the absence of IL-3, bcl-2 promoted the survival of the infected cells but they persisted in a G0 state, rather than proliferating. These results argue that bcl-2 provided a distinct survival signal to the cell and may contribute to neoplasia by allowing a clone to persist until other oncogenes, such as c-myc, become activated.
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            Bcl-2 is an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that blocks programmed cell death.

            The t(14; 18) chromosomal translocation of human follicular B-cell lymphoma juxtaposes the bcl-2 gene with the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus. The bcl-2 immunoglobulin fusion gene is markedly deregulated resulting in inappropriately elevated levels of bcl-2 RNA and protein. Transgenic mice bearing a bcl-2 immunoglobulin minigene demonstrate a polyclonal expansion of resting yet responsive IgM-IgD B cells which display prolonged cell survival but no increase in cell cycling. Moreover, deregulated bcl-2 extends the survival of certain haematopoietic cell lines following growth-factor deprivation. By using immunolocalization studies we now demonstrate that Bcl-2 is an integral inner mitochondrial membrane protein of relative molecular mass 25,000 (25k). Overexpression of Bcl-2 blocks the apoptotic death of a pro-B-lymphocyte cell line. Thus, Bcl-2 is unique among proto-oncogenes, being localized to mitochondria and interfering with programmed cell death independent of promoting cell division.
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              p53 is required for radiation-induced apoptosis in mouse thymocytes.

              The p53 tumour suppressor gene is the most widely mutated gene in human tumorigenesis. p53 encodes a transcriptional activator whose targets may include genes that regulate genomic stability, the cellular response to DNA damage, and cell-cycle progression. Introduction of wild-type p53 into cell lines that have lost endogenous p53 function can cause growth arrest or induce a process of cell death known as apoptosis. During normal development, self-reactive thymocytes undergo negative selection by apoptosis, which can also be induced in immature thymocytes by other stimuli, including exposure to glucocorticoids and ionizing radiation. Although normal negative selection involves signalling through the T-cell receptor, the induction of apoptosis by other stimuli is poorly understood. We have investigated the requirement for p53 during apoptosis in mouse thymocytes. We report here that immature thymocytes lacking p53 die normally when exposed to compounds that may mimic T-cell receptor engagement and to glucocorticoids but are resistant to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation. These results demonstrate that p53 is required for radiation-induced cell death in the thymus but is not necessary for all forms of apoptosis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                1998
                August 1998
                05 June 1998
                : 18
                : 4
                : 291-295
                Affiliations
                Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Showa University Fujigaoka Hospital, Yokohama, Japan
                Article
                13353 Am J Nephrol 1998;18:291–295
                10.1159/000013353
                9653832
                © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, References: 38, Pages: 5
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/13353
                Categories
                Clinical Study

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Apoptosis, Bcl-2, Mesangial proliferative nephritis

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