The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of vitamins C and E on malondialdehyde (MDA) content and activities of key antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) as well as glomerular basement membrane (GBM) thickness in streptozotocin-induced diabetic kidney in rats. Wistar male rats were divided into following groups (12 rats each): the control, diabetic rats, diabetic rats whose drinking water was supplemented with vitamin C in a dose of 1.0 g/l or diet was supplemented with 200 mg of vitamin E/100 g fodder. Body weight, blood glucose and HbA1C levels and 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (UAE) were studied every week (0–12 weeks). After 6 and 12 weeks, MDA content and activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px were measured in the kidney homogenate supernatants. Electron micrographs of glomeruli were scanned and morphometric investigations were performed by means of computer image analysis system to compare GBM thickness. The blood glucose and HbA1C concentrations and UAE in diabetic rats were significantly higher than in the control group. An increase in the MDA level and decrease in the SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities in the kidney of diabetic rats were observed after 6 and 12 weeks of experiment. Administration of vitamins C and E did not affect body weight, blood glucose and HbA1C levels. Both vitamin C and vitamin E decreased lipid peroxidation and augmented the activities of antioxidant enzymes studied in the kidneys of diabetic rats as well as reduced UAE, decreased kidney weight and GBM thickness. The results indicate the potential utility of antioxidant vitamins in the protection against the development of diabetic nephropathy.