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      Significance of the prognostic nutritional index in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

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          Abstract

          Background

          The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) is related to the prognosis in many cancers; however, its role in esophageal cancer is still controversial. Further, controversy exists concerning the optimal cut-off points for PNI to predict survival. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of PNI and propose the optimal cut-off points for PNI in predicting cancer-specific survival (CSS) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).

          Methods

          This retrospective study included 375 patients who underwent esophagectomy for ESCC. The PNI was calculated as 10 × serum albumin (g/dL) + 0.005 × total lymphocyte count (per mm 3). With the help of the fit line on the scatter plot, we classified the patients into three categories according to the PNI, ie, >52, 42–52, and <42.

          Results

          Our study showed that PNI was associated with tumor length ( P=0.007), T grade ( P=0.001), and N staging ( P<0.001). The 5-year CSS in patients with PNI <42, 42–52, and >52 were 11.0%, 39.1%, and 55.2%, respectively ( P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that PNI was a significant predictor of CSS (42–52 versus >52, P=0.011; <42 versus PNI >52, P<0.001).

          Conclusion

          PNI is a predictive factor for long-term survival in ESCC. The survival rate of ESCC can be discriminated between three groups, ie, PNI <42, 42–52, and >52.

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          Most cited references 14

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          [Prognostic nutritional index in gastrointestinal surgery of malnourished cancer patients].

          Based on assessment of 200 malnourished cancer patients of digestive organs, a multiparameter index of nutritional status was defined to relating the risk of postoperative complications to base line nutritional status. The linear predictive model relating the risk of operative complication, mortality or both to nutritional status is given by the relation: prognostic nutritional index (PNI) = 10 Alb. + 0.005 Lymph. C., where Alb. is serum albumin level (g/100 ml) and Lymph. C. is total lymphocytes count/mm3 peripheral blood. When applied prospectively to 189 gastrointestinal surgical patients those who were malnourished and treated by TPN preoperatively, this index provided an accurate, quantitative estimate of operative risk. In general, resection and anastomosis of gastrointestinal tract can be safely practiced when the index is over 45. The same procedure may be dangerous between 45 and 40. In below 40, this kind of operation may be contraindicated. The prognostic nutritional index is useful also to know the prognosis of patients with terminal cancer. Despite practicing TPN to cancer patients with near terminal stages, if the PNI remains below 40 and total lymphocytes count remains below 1,000/mm3, the patients has high possibility to die within the next two months.
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            Lymphopenia as a prognostic factor for overall survival in advanced carcinomas, sarcomas, and lymphomas.

            Lymphopenia is frequent in advanced cancers and predicts the toxicity of chemotherapy. Its effect on relapse and survival is uncertain. Its prognostic value for survival was analyzed in three databases of previously reported prospective multicenter studies: (a) FEC chemotherapy in metastatic breast carcinoma; (b) CYVADIC in advanced soft tissue sarcoma (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group 62791); and (c) prospective, consecutive phase III studies of aggressive diffuse large-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas conducted at Centre Léon Bérard between 1987 and 1993. Univariate and multivariate analyses of prognostic factors for survival were performed. The incidence of lymphopenia of 1, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients with international prognostic index (IPI) of > 0, and advanced soft tissue sarcoma and metastatic breast cancer patients with bone metastases. Inunivariate analysis, lymphopenia of <1,000/microL significantly correlated to overall survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer (median, 10 versus 14 mo; P < 0.0001), advanced soft tissue sarcoma (median, 5 versus 10 months; P < 0.01), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (median, 11 versus 94 months; P < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis (Cox model), lymphopenia was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in metastatic breast cancer [RR (relative risk), 1.8; 95% CI (confidence interval), 1.3-2.4] along with liver metastases and PS; in advanced soft tissue sarcoma (RR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.0-2.1) along with liver metastases, lung metastases, and PS; and in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (RR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.03-2.1) along with IPI. Our findings show that lymphopenia is an independent prognostic factor for overall and progression-free survival in several cancers.
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              Nutritional predictors of postoperative outcome in pancreatic cancer.

              Nutritional status plays an important role in the incidence of postoperative complications and the prognosis of various tumours. The prognostic value of preoperative nutritional factors in patients with pancreatic cancer is not known. This retrospective study included 268 patients who underwent resection for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. The predictive value of preoperative nutritional status for postoperative outcome (survival, complications) was assessed. Nutritional factors included the three constitutional indices, serum albumin and Onodera's prognostic nutrition index (PNI), calculated as 10 × serum albumin (g/dl) + 0·005× total lymphocyte count (per mm(3)). In multivariable analysis preoperative low PNI (but not low albumin) was an independent prognostic factor for poor survival: hazard ratio (HR) 1·73 (95 per cent confidence interval (c.i.) 1·21 to 2·47). The accuracy of a PNI value of less than 45 as cut-off for clinically significant preoperative malnutrition in predicting 1- or 2-year survival after surgery was, however, limited (66·4 and 56·3 per cent respectively). Low preoperative albumin concentration and PNI were significantly associated with postoperative complications: odds ratio 1·98 (95 per cent c.i. 1·18 to 3·32) and 2·14 (1·23 to 3·73) respectively. Low PNI and low body mass index were independently associated with pancreatic fistula: HR 2·52 (1·37 to 4·63) and 0·40 (0·17 to 0·93) respectively. The PNI is associated with overall survival and postoperative complications, in particular pancreatic fistula, in patients with pancreatic cancer. The moderate accuracy of PNI as a predictor of survival limits its clinical use.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2014
                2014
                16 December 2013
                : 10
                : 1-7
                Affiliations
                Department of Thoracic Surgery, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Key Laboratory Diagnosis and Treatment Technology on Thoracic Oncology, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ji-Feng Feng, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Key Laboratory Diagnosis and Treatment Technology on Thoracic Oncology, 38 Guangji Road, Banshan Bridge, Hangzhou 310022, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 0571 8812 2038, Fax +86 0571 8812 2038, Email jifzhejiang@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                tcrm-10-001
                10.2147/TCRM.S56159
                3872141
                24379675
                © 2014 Feng and Chen. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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