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      Development and course of heart failure after a myocardial infarction in younger and older people

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          Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common cause of heart failure (HF), which can develop soon after AMI and may persist or resolve or develop late. HF after an MI is a major source of mortality. The cumulative incidence, prevalence and resolution of HF after MI in different age groups are poorly described. This study describes the natural history of HF after AMI according to age.


          Patients with AMI during 1998 were identified from hospital records. HF was defined as treatment of symptoms and signs of HF with loop diuretics and was considered to have resolved if loop diuretic therapy could be stopped without recurrence of symptoms. Patients were categorised into those aged < 65 years, 65–75 years, and > 75 years.


          Of 896 patients, 311, 297 and 288 were aged < 65, 65–75 and >75 years and of whom 24%, 57% and 82% had died respectively by December 2005. Of these deaths, 24 (8%), 68 (23%) and 107 (37%) occurred during the index admission, many associated with acute HF. A further 37 (12%), 63 (21%) and 82 (29%) developed HF that persisted until discharge, of whom 15, 44 and 62 subsequently died. After discharge, 53 (24%), 55 (40%) and 37 (47%) patients developed HF for the first time, of whom 26%, 62% and 76% subsequently died. Death was preceded by the development of HF in 35 (70%), 93 (91%) and 107 (85%) in aged < 65 years, 65–75 years and >75 years, respectively.


          The risk of developing HF and of dying after an MI increases progressively with age. Regardless of age, most deaths after a MI are preceded by the development of HF.

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          Primary angioplasty versus intravenous thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: a quantitative review of 23 randomised trials.

          Many trials have been done to compare primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) with thrombolytic therapy for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (AMI). Our aim was to look at the combined results of these trials and to ascertain which reperfusion therapy is most effective. We did a search of published work and identified 23 trials, which together randomly assigned 7739 thrombolytic-eligible patients with ST-segment elevation AMI to primary PTCA (n=3872) or thrombolytic therapy (n=3867). Streptokinase was used in eight trials (n=1837), and fibrin-specific agents in 15 (n=5902). Most patients who received thrombolytic therapy (76%, n=2939) received a fibrin-specific agent. Stents were used in 12 trials, and platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors were used in eight. We identified short-term and long-term clinical outcomes of death, non-fatal reinfarction, and stroke, and did subgroup analyses to assess the effect of type of thrombolytic agent used and the strategy of emergent hospital transfer for primary PTCA. All analyses were done with and without inclusion of the SHOCK trial data. Primary PTCA was better than thrombolytic therapy at reducing overall short-term death (7% [n=270] vs 9% [360]; p=0.0002), death excluding the SHOCK trial data (5% [199] vs 7% [276]; p=0.0003), non-fatal reinfarction (3% [80] vs 7% [222]; p<0.0001), stroke (1% [30] vs 2% [64]; p=0.0004), and the combined endpoint of death, non-fatal reinfarction, and stroke (8% [253] vs 14% [442]; p<0.0001). The results seen with primary PTCA remained better than those seen with thrombolytic therapy during long-term follow-up, and were independent of both the type of thrombolytic agent used, and whether or not the patient was transferred for primary PTCA. Primary PTCA is more effective than thrombolytic therapy for the treatment of ST-segment elevation AMI.
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            Relation between renal dysfunction and cardiovascular outcomes after myocardial infarction.

            The presence of coexisting conditions has a substantial effect on the outcome of acute myocardial infarction. Renal failure is associated with one of the highest risks, but the influence of milder degrees of renal impairment is less well defined. As part of the Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (VALIANT), we identified 14,527 patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by clinical or radiologic signs of heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, or both, and a documented serum creatinine measurement. Patients were randomly assigned to receive captopril, valsartan, or both. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated by means of the four-component Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation, and the patients were grouped according to their estimated GFR. We used a 70-candidate variable model to adjust and compare overall mortality and composite cardiovascular events among four GFR groups. The distribution of estimated GFR was wide and normally shaped, with a mean (+/-SD) value of 70+/-21 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area. The prevalence of coexisting risk factors, prior cardiovascular disease, and a Killip class of more than I was greatest among patients with a reduced estimated GFR (less than 45.0 ml per minute per 1.73 m2), and the use of aspirin, beta-blockers, statins, or coronary-revascularization procedures was lowest in this group. The risk of death or the composite end point of death from cardiovascular causes, reinfarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, or resuscitation after cardiac arrest increased with declining estimated GFRs. Although the rate of renal events increased with declining estimated GFRs, the adverse outcomes were predominantly cardiovascular. Below 81.0 ml per minute per 1.73 m2, each reduction of the estimated GFR by 10 units was associated with a hazard ratio for death and nonfatal cardiovascular outcomes of 1.10 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.08 to 1.12), which was independent of the treatment assignment. Even mild renal disease, as assessed by the estimated GFR, should be considered a major risk factor for cardiovascular complications after a myocardial infarction. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic heart failure: executive summary (update 2005): The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Heart Failure of the European Society of Cardiology.


                Author and article information

                J Geriatr Cardiol
                J Geriatr Cardiol
                Journal of Geriatric Cardiology : JGC
                Science Press
                March 2014
                : 11
                : 1
                : 1-12
                Department of Cardiology, Castle Hill Hospital, Hull York Medical School, University of Hull, Kingston upon Hull, HU16 5JQ, United Kingdom
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Azam Torabi, MD, PhD, Department of Cardiology, Castle Hill Hospital, Hull York Medical School, University of Hull, Kingston upon Hull, HU16 5JQ, United Kingdom. E-mails: azam.torabi@ 123456hey .; atorabi@ Telephone:+44-1482-46179 Fax:+44-1482-461779
                Institute of Geriatric Cardiology

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, which allows readers to alter, transform, or build upon the article and then distribute the resulting work under the same or similar license to this one. The work must be attributed back to the original author and commercial use is not permitted without specific permission.

                Research Article

                Cardiovascular Medicine

                age, heart failure, myocardial infarction


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