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      Characterization of microsatellite markers in the cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungus Rhizoplaca melanophthalma (Lecanoraceae)

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      MycoKeys

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Rhizoplaca melanophthalma s.l. is a group of morphologically distinct and chemically diverse species that commonly occur in desert, steppe and montane habitats worldwide. In this study, we developed microsatellite markers to facilitate studies of genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow in the nominal taxon of this group, Rhizoplaca melanophthalma. We characterized 10 microsatellite markers using a draft genome of R. melanophthalma s. str. assembled from Illumina reads. These loci were tested for 21 R. melanophthalma s. str. specimens and also with a subset of 18 specimens representing six additional species in the R. melanophthalma complex. The number of alleles per locus in R. melanophthalma s. str. ranged from 3 to 11 with an average of 6.7. Nei’s unbiased gene diversity ranged from 0.35 to 0.91. Amplifications of the microsatellite loci were largely successful in the other six species, although only three markers were found to be polymorphic. The new markers will provide an additional resource for studying genetic, population- and landscape-level processes in the cosmopolitan taxon Rhizoplaca melanophthalma s. str.

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          msatcommander: detection of microsatellite repeat arrays and automated, locus-specific primer design.

          msatcommander is a platform-independent program designed to search for microsatellite arrays, design primers, and tag primers using an automated routine. msatcommander accepts as input DNA sequence data in single-sequence or concatenated, fasta-formatted files. Search data and locus-specific primers are written to comma-separated value files for subsequent use in spreadsheet or database programs. Binary versions of the graphical interface for msatcommander are available for Apple OS X and Windows XP. Users of other operating systems may run the graphical interface version using the available source code, provided their environment supports at least Python 2.4, Biopython 1.43, and wxPython 2.8. msatcommander is available from http://code.google.com/p/msatcommander/. © 2007 The Author.
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            Complex patterns of speciation in cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichens--discovering and delimiting cryptic fungal species in the lichen-forming Rhizoplaca melanophthalma species-complex (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota).

            A growing body of evidence indicates that in some cases morphology-based species circumscription of lichenized fungi misrepresents the number of existing species. The cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichen (Rhizoplaca melanophthalma) species-complex includes a number of morphologically distinct species that are both geographically and ecologically widespread, providing a model system to evaluate speciation in lichen-forming ascomycetes. In this study, we assembled multiple lines of evidence from nuclear DNA sequence data, morphology, and biochemistry for species delimitation in the R. melanophthalma species-complex. We identify a total of ten candidate species in this study, four of which were previously recognized as distinct taxa and six previously unrecognized lineages found within what has been thus far considered a single species. Candidate species are supported using inferences from multiple empirical operational criteria. Multiple instances of sympatry support the view that these lineages merit recognition as distinct taxa. Generally, we found little corroboration between morphological and chemical characters, and previously unidentified lineages were morphologically polymorphic. However, secondary metabolite data supported one cryptic saxicolous lineage, characterized by orsellinic-derived gyrophoric and lecanoric acids, which we consider to be taxonomically significant. Our study of the R. melanophthalma species-complex indicates that the genus Rhizoplaca, as presently circumscribed, is more diverse in western North American than originally perceived, and we present our analyses as a working example of species delimitation in morphologically cryptic and recently diverged lichenized fungi. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Towards a revised generic classification of lecanoroid lichens (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota) based on molecular, morphological and chemical evidence

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                MycoKeys
                MC
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-4049
                1314-4057
                August 31 2016
                August 31 2016
                : 14
                : 31-36
                Article
                10.3897/mycokeys.14.9729
                © 2016
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