Background/Aims: Experimental studies have demonstrated interleukin-6 and iron load induce expression of hepcidin (an iron regulatory peptide), whereas anemia and erythropoietin (EPO) suppress its expression. We are the first to explore the relationships of plasma prohepcidin (the pro-hormone of hepcidin) in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis (HD). Methods: We enrolled 71 chronic HD patients. During the preceding 3 months before enrollment, they all had steady weekly levels of haematocrit (Hct) and fixed subcutaneous doses of recombinant human EPO. Plasma levels of prohepcidin, proinflammatory cytokines, and EPO were determined by ELISA kits. Results: Of the patients, prohepcidin levels correlated positively with Hct, and negatively with interleukin-6 and EPO. Examined by a multivariate lineal regression method, we found Hct was the only significant predictor of plasma prohepcidin level. However, prohepcidin had no significant correlation with iron profiles. Conclusion: Our findings suggest prohepcidin expression in chronic HD patients might be positively regulated by Hct.