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      Association between Altered Circadian Blood Pressure Profile and Cardiac End-Organ Damage in Patients with Renovascular Hypertension


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          Background: Patients with renovascular hypertension (RVH) have a higher degree of cardiovascular end-organ damage compared to patients with essential hypertension (EH). The precise mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, however, have not been fully elucidated. This study investigated the relationship between circadian blood pressure (BP) profile and cardiac involvement in patients with RVH and EH. Methods: Twenty patients with RVH and 20 with EH, matched for demographic characteristics, underwent simultaneous 24-hour ambulatory BP recording and Holter ECG monitoring. Also, each participant underwent echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular mass. Cardiac damage was defined as the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial ischemia or arrhythmias. Results: Casual BP was similar in both groups, whereas 24-hour ambulatory BP values were higher in RVH than in EH patients; moreover, RVH patients had higher blood pressure variability and blunted nocturnal BP fall compared to those with EH. Left ventricular mass, as well as the prevalence of myocardial ischemia and the presence and severity of cardiac arrhythmias, were higher in RVH than in EH patients. Conclusions: Patients with RVH have altered circadian BP profile compared to those with EH. This abnormality might contribute to their increased prevalence of cardiac damage and might adversely affect the prognosis of these patients.

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          Renin-angiotensin-sympathetic crosstalks in hypertension: reappraising the relevance of peripheral interactions.

           G Grassi (2001)
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            Reduced nocturnal fall in blood pressure, assessed by two ambulatory blood pressure monitorings and cardiac alterations in early phases of untreated essential hypertension.

            To investigate whether in recently diagnosed essential hypertensives a reduced nocturnal fall in blood pressure (BP), established on the basis of two 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitorings (ABPM) is related to a greater cardiovascular damage. In all, 355 consecutive, recently diagnosed, never-treated essential hypertensives referred for the first time to our outpatient clinic were included in the study. Each patient underwent the following procedures: (1) two 24-h ABPMs performed within 3 weeks, (2) 24-h urinary collection for microalbuminuria, (3) nonmydriatic photography of ocular fundi, (4) echocardiography, (5) carotid ultrasonography. We defined nondipping profile as a night-day systolic and diastolic fall or = 125 g/m(2) in both genders; (b) LVMI > or = 134 gm(2) in men and > or = 110 in women; (c) LVMI> or = 125 g/m(2) in men and > or = 110 g/m(2) in women; (d) LVMI > or = 51 g/m(2.7) in men and > or = 47 g/m(2.7) in women was significantly higher in nondippers than in dippers (a: 12 vs 7%, P < 0.05; b: 16 vs 7%, P < 0.01; c: 20 vs 11%, P < 0.01; d: 35 vs 23% P < 0.02) and this finding was associated with a significant increase in aortic root and left atrium dimensions. There were no differences between the two groups in the prevalence of carotid and retinal changes and microalbuminuria. In conclusion our findings suggest that never-treated hypertensives with a reduced BP fall in the night time, defined on the basis of two ABPMs, have a higher prevalence of TOD than dippers, in terms of echocardiographic LVH. In this population setting, cardiac structural alterations are a more sensitive marker of the impact of the nocturnal BP load on cardiovascular system than other extracardiac signs of TOD.
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              Comparison of target organ damage in renovascular and essential hypertension.

              In many reports, the prevalence of target organ damage in renovascular hypertension (RVH) appears to be higher than in essential hypertension (EH). Since in most studies the renal artery stenosis is part of a diffuse atherosclerotic disease, it is not known whether these complications are due to RVH itself or to the vascular disease. We have undertaken a case control study of 92 patients divided into two groups (46 in each), one with RVH and the other with EH and abdominal aortic aneurysm, with a comparable degree of diffuse atherosclerotic vascular disease. The vascular state of the extracranial carotid arteries and abdominal and inferior limb districts was investigated with angiography and sonography. The prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and ischemic heart disease (IHD) were assessed by electrocardiography. Serum creatinine and urinary protein excretion were employed in the renal evaluation. While the analysis of the results confirmed an even diffusion of atherosclerotic vascular disease between the two groups, a significant difference was found in the prevalence of heart and renal damage. LVH was present in 32.6% of RVH patients versus 10.8% in EH (P = .02). Serum creatinine > 1.4 mg/dL was found in 50% of RVH and in 23.9% of EH, (P = .01). The prevalence of proteinuria in RVH was also higher although not reaching the statistical significance. The results suggest that, in patients with comparable degrees of atherosclerotic vascular disease, RVH is responsible for the higher prevalence of target organ damage in this condition compared to those with EH.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                November 2003
                21 November 2003
                : 100
                : 3
                : 114-119
                Istituto di Patologia Speciale Medica e Semeiotica Medica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy
                73911 Cardiology 2003;100:114–119
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, References: 28, Pages: 6
                General Cardiology


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