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      ANALYSIS OF STATE-WIDE GREEN BUILDING POLICIES

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          Abstract

          This paper summarizes the findings of a study on green building policies that affect state funded, owned, or leased buildings. The original study was commissioned by Georgia Environmental Facilities Authority (GEFA) and resulted in recommendations for how best to encourage green building in State of Georgia facilities. While the ultimate purpose of the research effort was targeted at making recommendations for the State of Georgia, valuable information was garnered from the individuals who were generous with their time and provided information about the green building programs from their states. From this information, useful lessons can be concluded which have general applicability for all states and other public sector organizations interested in pursuing green building efforts.

          Interviews with key stakeholders from state agencies in nine of the eleven states that had formal green building policies at the time the study was conducted provided data that was essential to capturing lessons learned from those who have experienced LEED and other green building mandates within their organizations. The information collected during this interview process has been captured in the form of case studies summarizing the green building programs in the nine states that were assessed, and this paper presents a summary of common attributes and lesson learned across those cases.

          The paper presents a framework to describe how green building programs evolve in public agencies. The framework includes four major components: Inspiration—a phase that includes knowledge, awareness and persuasion that encourage adoption of a green building policy or practice; Motivation—a stage in which a formal or informal policy is developed to shape agency actions toward meeting green building goals; Implementation—where programs are developed to support the activities needed to meet the goals of the policy; and, Evaluation—where compliance with policy requirements and assessment of program performance is undertaken. These four elements provide a structure for mapping the different ways in which organizations have approached creating a green building program. The paper also discusses inhibitors (opposition to LEED certification, cost impacts and resistance to change) and enablers (presence of strong champions, capitalizing on external motivators, and stakeholder support) that affect the success of state-level green building policies.

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          Most cited references 8

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          GREEN BUILDING POLICY OPTIONS FOR THE PUBLIC SECTOR

          Green building is receiving increased attention in the public sector in the United States. Over the past ten years, public sector organizations have gone from “testing the waters” with green building pilot projects to developing wide-reaching policies that incorporate green building practices and standards as a formal part of capital project decision processes. A variety of approaches have been employed at the federal, state, and local levels that encourage or require green building practices on public sector projects. To date, however, there has been no systematic evaluation of the pros and cons of these policy options to provide a basis for organizations considering how best to construct a program to meet the needs of its specific context. This paper identifies, compares, and contrasts options that have been incorporated as part of green building programs for states and other public sector organization seeking to motivate green building practices in their capital projects and facilities. Three categories of options are considered: Policy, Program, and Evaluation options. The paper evaluates alternatives within each of these categories according to their potential social, environmental, and economic impacts as well as their likelihood of implementation success within the context of public agencies. The findings of this paper contribute a palette of options for policymakers to consider when drafting policies for their organizations, along with program options to be considered by those who must implement the policies. This work contributes a foundation for future research to further understand the relative effectiveness and impacts of policy elements on green building practice within public sector organizations.
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            Drivers for Change An Organizational Perspective on Sustainable Construction

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              UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES: HOW THE USE OF LEED CAN INADVERTENTLY FAIL TO BENEFIT THE ENVIRONMENT

              Unintended consequences invariably accompany regulations and standards. This study examined whether the LEED rating system creates any negative inadvertent environmental effects and, if so, what they are. In effect, can doing something that is not sustainable ever help a project get a higher score? The research tool consisted of semi-structured interviews with construction management personnel responsible for the LEED aspects of projects. The study looked at specific LEED certified projects around the southeastern United States. These interviews gathered project specific information about the company responsible for building, the interviewee’s experience and views, and the general project. Most importantly, the interviews collected data on any instances of negative unintended environmental effects. Of the 16 projects considered, two included cases of unintended effects. Both cases resulted from situations in which the project location made the otherwise beneficial LEED requirement inappropriate. The study recommends ways to help prevent other similar instances of negative unintended effects. Ultimately, sustainability is best advanced by using LEED certification as an aid not an objective in the journey towards environmentally friendly buildings.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                jgrb
                Journal of Green Building
                College Publishing
                1552-6100
                1943-4618
                1943-4618
                Spring 2007
                : 2
                : 2
                : 161-177
                Author notes

                1.Research Associate, College of Architecture, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0155. Email: jennifer.dubose@ 123456coa.gatech.edu .

                2.Ph.D., Research Scientist, College of Architecture, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0155. Email: sheila@ 123456greenarkinc.com .

                3.Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Myers-Lawson School of Construction, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 Email: apearce@ 123456vt.edu .

                Article
                jgb.2.2.161
                10.3992/jgb.2.2.161
                ©2007 by College Publishing. All rights reserved.

                Volumes 1-7 of JOGB are open access and do not require permission for use, though proper citation should be given. To view the licenses, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

                Page count
                Pages: 17
                Product
                Categories
                RESEARCH ARTICLES

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