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      Quadratus lumborum block (transmuscular approach) versus transversus abdominis plane block (unilateral subcostal approach) for perioperative analgesia in patients undergoing open nephrectomy: a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial

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          Abstract

          Abstract Study objective Patients undergoing open nephrectomy surgery experience severe perioperative pain, which is primarily due to incision of several muscles. Abdominal wall blocks are known to reduce pain without causing epidural-associated hypotension. We conducted this study to compare unilateral ultrasound-guided transmuscular quadratus lumborum block and posterior transversus abdominis block in combination with general anesthesia alone in terms of intraoperative and postoperative analgesics and hemodynamics and postoperative complications. Methods This was a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial conducted in the operating room. This study included 48 patients aged 20-60 years, with ASA I and II, and a body mass index ≤ 30 kg.m-2 who were scheduled for open nephrectomy procedure.The 48 patients scheduled for nephrectomy were randomly allocated into one of the following three groups after induction of general anesthesia: Group A (n = 16) received USG transmuscular QLB; Group B (n = 16) received unilateral USG posterior transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block; and Group C (n = 16; control group) did not receive any blocks. Introperative fentanyl consumption, and hemodynamics (heart rate and mean arterial pressure (MAP)) were recorded after anesthesia induction, at surgical incision, and every 15 min till the end of surgery. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was evaluated immediately at 30 min and 1,2,4,6, and 12 hours postoperatively. The time of first analgesic request was also recorded. Results Intraoperative fentanyl consumption (µg) was significantly lower in Groups A and B (164.69 ± 27.35 and 190.31 ± 44.48, respectively) than in Group C (347.50 ± 63.64) (p < 0.001). Postoperatively, total pethidine consumption was significantly lower in Groups A and B than in Group C (85.31 ± 6.68, 84.06 ± 4.17 mg, and 152.19 ± 43.43 mg, respectively) (p < 0.001. Time to rescue analgesia was longer in Groups A and B than in Group C (138.75 ± 52.39 min, 202.50 ± 72.25 min, and 37.50 ± 13.42 min, respectively) (p < 0.001). VAS score was significantly lower in Groups A and B than in Group C at 30 min and 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours postoperatively. Conclusion Transmuscular quadratus lumborum block and posterior transversus abdominis blocks were effective in providing perioperative analgesia in patients undergoing open nephrectomy. However, quadratus lumborum block provided superior analgesia.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Biostatistics 102: quantitative data--parametric & non-parametric tests.

           Jim K H Chan (2003)
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            Ultrasound-Guided Quadratus Lumborum Block: An Updated Review of Anatomy and Techniques

            Purpose of Review. Since the original publication on the quadratus lumborum (QL) block, the technique has evolved significantly during the last decade. This review highlights recent advances in various approaches for administering the QL block and proposes directions for future research. Recent Findings. The QL block findings continue to become clearer. We now understand that the QL block has several approach methods (anterior, lateral, posterior, and intramuscular) and the spread of local anesthetic varies with each approach. In particular, dye injected using the anterior QL block approach spread to the L1, L2, and L3 nerve roots and within psoas major and QL muscles. Summary. The QL block is an effective analgesic tool for abdominal surgery. However, the best approach is yet to be determined. Therefore, the anesthetic spread of the several QL blocks must be made clear.
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              Biostatistics 103: qualitative data - tests of independence.

               David Chan (2003)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                bja
                Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
                Braz. J. Anesthesiol.
                Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia (SBA) (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil )
                0104-0014
                2352-2291
                August 2021
                : 71
                : 4
                : 367-375
                Affiliations
                Cairo Giza orgnameCairo University orgdiv1Kasr Al Aini Hospital Egypt
                Article
                S2352-22912021000400367 S2352-2291(21)07100400367
                10.1016/j.bjane.2021.01.009

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 16, Pages: 9
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                Clinical Research

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