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      Internet method for the extraction of N,N-dimethyltryptamine from Mimosa hostilis roots: Does it really extract dimethyltryptamine?

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          Abstract

          Background and aims

          The psychoactive capacity of the alkaloid N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) has been known for decades, and its presence in beverages used in religious contexts around the world – such as ayahuasca – has attracted growing attention from the scientific community due to its possible anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. Mimosa hostilis, popularly known as jurema preta in Brazil, is a plant known to be utilized for extracting DMT, especially for recreational use. In this study, we confirmed if five different organic solvents ( n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, dichloromethane, and chloroform) would extract non-purified DMT from M. hostilis and compared them in terms of DMT concentration found in the five organic solvents cited before.

          Methods

          We have performed the straight to base technique for the extraction of DMT found on the Internet. The evaluation of DMT concentration in the organic solvents was performed via UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. No investigation was performed on other compounds in the solvents.

          Results

          All the organic solvents extracted non-purified DMT, from lower to higher concentration: n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, n-butanol, and dichloromethane.

          Conclusions

          The Internet straight to base method indeed extracts DMT from M. hostilis roots. However, DMT is not purified and the exact composition of the extracts and its toxicology is unknown. Thus, recreational DMT users are exposing themselves to products with unknown composition and effects.

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          Most cited references14

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          Rapid antidepressant effects of the psychedelic ayahuasca in treatment-resistant depression: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

          Background Recent open-label trials show that psychedelics, such as ayahuasca, hold promise as fast-onset antidepressants in treatment-resistant depression. Methods To test the antidepressant effects of ayahuasca, we conducted a parallel-arm, double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial in 29 patients with treatment-resistant depression. Patients received a single dose of either ayahuasca or placebo. We assessed changes in depression severity with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Hamilton Depression Rating scale at baseline, and at 1 (D1), 2 (D2), and 7 (D7) days after dosing. Results We observed significant antidepressant effects of ayahuasca when compared with placebo at all-time points. MADRS scores were significantly lower in the ayahuasca group compared with placebo at D1 and D2 (p = 0.04), and at D7 (p < 0.0001). Between-group effect sizes increased from D1 to D7 (D1: Cohen's d = 0.84; D2: Cohen's d = 0.84; D7: Cohen's d = 1.49). Response rates were high for both groups at D1 and D2, and significantly higher in the ayahuasca group at D7 (64% v. 27%; p = 0.04). Remission rate showed a trend toward significance at D7 (36% v. 7%, p = 0.054). Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first controlled trial to test a psychedelic substance in treatment-resistant depression. Overall, this study brings new evidence supporting the safety and therapeutic value of ayahuasca, dosed within an appropriate setting, to help treat depression. This study is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02914769).
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            Metabolism and urinary disposition of N,N-dimethyltryptamine after oral and smoked administration: a comparative study.

            N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a widely distributed plant alkaloid that displays partial agonist activity at the 5-HT2A receptor and induces intense psychedelic effects in humans when administered parenterally. However, self-administration studies have reported a total lack of activity following oral intake. This is thought to be due to extensive degradation by monoamine oxidase (MAO). Despite increased use of DMT and DMT-containing preparations, such as the plant tea ayahuasca, the biotransformation of DMT in humans when administered alone is relatively unknown. Here we used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/electrospray ionization (ESI)/selected reaction monitoring (SRM)/tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to characterize the metabolism and disposition of oral and smoked DMT. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were obtained from 6 DMT users before and after intake of 25 mg DMT doses on two separate sessions. In one session, DMT was taken orally and in another it was smoked. After oral ingestion, no psychotropic effects were experienced and no DMT was recovered in urine. MAO-dependent indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) represented 97% of the recovered compounds, whereas DMT-N-oxide (DMT-NO) accounted for only 3%. When the smoked route was used, the drug was fully psychoactive, unmetabolized DMT and DMT-NO rose to 10% and 28%, respectively, and IAA levels dropped to 63%. An inverse correlation was found between the IAA/DMT-NO ratio and subjective effects scores. These findings show that in the smoked route a shift from the highly efficient MAO-dependent to the less efficient CYP-dependent metabolism takes place. This shift leads to psychoactivity and is analogous to that observed in ayahuasca preparations combining DMT with MAO inhibitors.
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              Dark Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT)

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                jps
                JPS
                Journal of Psychedelic Studies
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                05 March 2019
                March 2019
                : 3
                : 1
                : 1-6
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ]Departamento de Neurociências e Ciências do Comportamento, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo , Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil
                [ 2 ]Departamento de Química, Universidade de São Paulo , Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil
                [ 3 ]Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo , Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil
                [ 4 ]Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo , Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil
                [ 5 ] National Institute of Science and Technology – Translational Medicine , Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil
                [ 6 ] ICEERS Foundation (International Center for Ethnobotanical Education, Research and Services) , Barcelona, Spain
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Prof. Rafael Guimarães dos Santos, PhD; Departamento de Neurociências e Ciências do Comportamento, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Hospital das Clínicas, Terceiro Andar, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; Phone/Fax: +55 16 3602 2703; E-mail: banisteria@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                10.1556/2054.2019.009
                b46a0903-df5d-4423-8d8b-9bd9a5517c63
                © 2019 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                History
                : 09 January 2019
                : 22 February 2019
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 19, Pages: 6
                Categories
                ORIGINAL ARTICLE

                Evolutionary Biology,Medicine,Psychology,Educational research & Statistics,Social & Behavioral Sciences
                extraction,straight to base, Mimosa hostilis , N,N-dimethyltryptamine,DMT,jurema

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