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      Colorectal Cancer, Gut Microbiota and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Systematic Review

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          Based on the study and research on the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer, the types and functions of gut microbiota, and its role in guiding and regulating the occurrence and development of diseases, we have explored the mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of colorectal cancer by regulating the gut microbiota. Genetic variation, abnormal responses of innate and adaptive immunity, mucosal barrier dysfunction, imbalance of intestinal microbial colonization, personal and environmental risk factors are the main pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. The gut microbiota mainly includes Sclerotium (including Clostridium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus and Ruminococcus) and Bacteroides (including Bacteroides and Prevotella), which have biological antagonism, nutrition for the organism, metabolic abilities, immune stimulation, and ability to shape cancer genes functions to body. The gut microbiota can be related to the health of the host. Current studies have shown that Chinese herbal compound, single medicinal materials, and monomer components can treat colorectal cancer by regulating the gut microbiota, such as Xiaoyaosan can increase the abundance of Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, and Proteus and decrease the abundance of Desulfovibrio and Rickerella. Therefore, studying the regulation and mechanism of gut microbiota on colorectal cancer is of great benefit to disease treatment.

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          What is the Healthy Gut Microbiota Composition? A Changing Ecosystem across Age, Environment, Diet, and Diseases

          Each individual is provided with a unique gut microbiota profile that plays many specific functions in host nutrient metabolism, maintenance of structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation, and protection against pathogens. Gut microbiota are composed of different bacteria species taxonomically classified by genus, family, order, and phyla. Each human’s gut microbiota are shaped in early life as their composition depends on infant transitions (birth gestational date, type of delivery, methods of milk feeding, weaning period) and external factors such as antibiotic use. These personal and healthy core native microbiota remain relatively stable in adulthood but differ between individuals due to enterotypes, body mass index (BMI) level, exercise frequency, lifestyle, and cultural and dietary habits. Accordingly, there is not a unique optimal gut microbiota composition since it is different for each individual. However, a healthy host–microorganism balance must be respected in order to optimally perform metabolic and immune functions and prevent disease development. This review will provide an overview of the studies that focus on gut microbiota balances in the same individual and between individuals and highlight the close mutualistic relationship between gut microbiota variations and diseases. Indeed, dysbiosis of gut microbiota is associated not only with intestinal disorders but also with numerous extra-intestinal diseases such as metabolic and neurological disorders. Understanding the cause or consequence of these gut microbiota balances in health and disease and how to maintain or restore a healthy gut microbiota composition should be useful in developing promising therapeutic interventions.
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            Fusobacterium nucleatum promotes colorectal carcinogenesis by modulating E-cadherin/β-catenin signaling via its FadA adhesin.

            Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) has been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC), but causality and underlying mechanisms remain to be established. We demonstrate that Fn adheres to, invades, and induces oncogenic and inflammatory responses to stimulate growth of CRC cells through its unique FadA adhesin. FadA binds to E-cadherin, activates β-catenin signaling, and differentially regulates the inflammatory and oncogenic responses. The FadA-binding site on E-cadherin is mapped to an 11-amino-acid region. A synthetic peptide derived from this region of E-cadherin abolishes FadA-induced CRC cell growth and oncogenic and inflammatory responses. The fadA gene levels in the colon tissue from patients with adenomas and adenocarcinomas are >10-100 times higher compared to normal individuals. The increased FadA expression in CRC correlates with increased expression of oncogenic and inflammatory genes. This study unveils a mechanism by which Fn can drive CRC and identifies FadA as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for CRC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Structural segregation of gut microbiota between colorectal cancer patients and healthy volunteers.

              Despite a long-suspected role in the development of human colorectal cancer (CRC), the composition of gut microbiota in CRC patients has not been adequately described. In this study, fecal bacterial diversity in CRC patients (n=46) and healthy volunteers (n=56) were profiled by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Both principal component analysis and UniFrac analysis showed structural segregation between the two populations. Forty-eight operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified by redundancy analysis as key variables significantly associated with the structural difference. One OTU closely related to Bacteroides fragilis was enriched in the gut microbiota of CRC patients, whereas three OTUs related to Bacteroides vulgatus and Bacteroides uniformis were enriched in that of healthy volunteers. A total of 11 OTUs belonging to the genera Enterococcus, Escherichia/Shigella, Klebsiella, Streptococcus and Peptostreptococcus were significantly more abundant in the gut microbiota of CRC patients, and 5 OTUs belonging to the genus Roseburia and other butyrate-producing bacteria of the family Lachnospiraceae were less abundant. Real-time quantitative PCR further validated the significant reduction of butyrate-producing bacteria in the gut microbiota of CRC patients by measuring the copy numbers of butyryl-coenzyme A CoA transferase genes (Mann-Whitney test, P<0.01). Reduction of butyrate producers and increase of opportunistic pathogens may constitute a major structural imbalance of gut microbiota in CRC patients.

                Author and article information

                The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
                Am. J. Chin. Med.
                World Scientific Pub Co Pte Lt
                January 2021
                April 06 2021
                January 2021
                : 49
                : 04
                : 805-828
                [1 ]State Key Laboratory of Southwestern Chinese Medicine Resources, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 611137, China
                [2 ]Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 611137, China
                [3 ]Innovative Institute of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 611137, China
                © 2021


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