The existing research on dairy cow mammary gland genes is extensive, but there have been few reports about dynamic changes in dairy cow mammary gland genes as milk yield decrease. For the first time, transcriptome analysis based on short time-series expression miner (STEM) and histological observations were performed using the Holstein dairy cow mammary gland to explore gene expression patterns in this process of decrease (at peak, mid-, and late lactation). Histological observations suggested that the number of mammary acinous cells at peak/mid-lactation was significantly higher than that at mid-/late lactation, and the lipid droplets area secreted by dairy cows was almost unaltered across the three stages of lactation ( p > 0.05). Totals of 882 and 1439 genes were differentially expressed at mid- and late lactation, respectively, compared to peak lactation. Function analysis showed that differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were mainly related to apoptosis and energy metabolism (fold change ≥ 2 or fold change ≤ 0.5, p-value ≤ 0.05). Transcriptome analysis based on STEM identified 16 profiles of differential gene expression patterns, including 5 significant profiles (false discovery rate, FDR ≤ 0.05). Function analysis revealed DEGs involved in milk fat synthesis were downregulated in Profile 0 and DEGs in Profile 12 associated with protein synthesis. These findings provide a foundation for future studies on the molecular mechanisms underlying mammary gland development in dairy cows.