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      Growth Hormone Deficiency and Replacement in Patients with Treated Cushing’s Disease, Prolactinomas and Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenomas: Effects on Body Composition, Glucose Metabolism, Lipid Status and Bone Mineral Density

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: This study was designed to determine whether previous Cushing’s disease (CD) or prolactinoma (PRL) could exert adverse effects additional to those of growth hormone (GH) deficiency as a consequence of variable degrees of prior hypogonadism or hypercatabolism. We report the effects of 5 years GH treatment in 124 GH deficiency adults; 42 patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA), 43 with treated PRL and 39 with treated CD. Methods: Fasting plasma glucose, HbA<sub>1c</sub>, lipoprotein profile, anthropometry and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured at baseline, 6 months and annually up to 5 years. Results: Mean body mass index remained unchanged in the PRL group and tended to increase in the NFPA group. In contrast, body mass index decreased in the CD group. Decreases in waist and waist/hip ratio were seen in all groups at 6 months. Decreases in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were seen in all groups and remained sustained at 5 years. Plasma glucose and HbA<sub>1c</sub> increased at 6 months. Subsequently, plasma glucose returned to baseline values at 5 years; in contrast, HbA<sub>1c </sub>remained unchanged at the end of the study. Baseline lumbar spine and hip BMD were lower in the PRL and CD groups than in the NFPA group, decreased over 1 year in all groups and subsequently increased by 2 years in NFPA with a subsequent increase in lumbar spine BMD in PRL and CD groups delayed to 3–5 years. Conclusions: Baseline characteristics and response to GH replacement are qualitatively similar in NFPA, PRL and CD patients. Because improvements in BMD occur later in PRL and CD patients, an extended trial of GH therapy may be indicated in those patients who were commenced on GH therapy as an additional treatment for reduced BMD.

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          Most cited references 27

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          The effects of treatment with recombinant human growth hormone on body composition and metabolism in adults with growth hormone deficiency.

          In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we studied the effects of six months of growth hormone replacement in 24 adults with growth hormone deficiency. Most of the patients had acquired growth hormone deficiency during adulthood as a consequence of treatment for pituitary tumors, and all were receiving appropriate thyroid, adrenal, and gonadal hormone replacement. The daily dose of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) was 0.07 U per kilogram of body weight, given subcutaneously at bedtime. The mean (+/- SE) plasma concentration of insulin-like growth factor I increased from 0.41 +/- 0.05 to 1.53 +/- 0.16 U per liter during rhGH treatment. Treatment with rhGH had no effect on body weight. The mean lean body mass, however, increased by 5.5 +/- 1.1 kg (P less than 0.0001), and the fat mass decreased by 5.7 +/- 0.9 kg (P less than 0.0001) in the group treated with growth hormone; neither changed significantly in the placebo group. The basal metabolic rate, measured at base line and after one and six months of rhGH administration, increased significantly; the respective values were 32.4 +/- 1.4, 37.2 +/- 2.2, and 34.4 +/- 1.6 kcal per kilogram of lean body mass per day (P less than 0.001 for both comparisons). Fasting plasma cholesterol levels were lower (P less than 0.05) in the rhGH-treated group than in the placebo group, whereas plasma triglyceride values were similar in the two groups throughout the study. We conclude that growth hormone has a role in the regulation of body composition in adults, probably through its anabolic and lipolytic actions.
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            Treatment of adults with growth hormone (GH) deficiency with recombinant human GH

             B. Bengtsson (1993)
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              Effects of short term administration of recombinant human growth hormone to elderly people.

              We evaluated the effects of recombinant human GH (rhGH) in 16 men and women more than 60 yr of age. After 10 days of dietary equilibration and control collections, subjects were randomly assigned to receive 0.03, 0.06, or 0.12 mg/kg rhGH by daily injection for 7 days. A brisk rise in circulating somatomedin-C (insulin-like growth factor-I) occurred in all subjects, and this rise was dose dependent. rhGH produced striking changes in nitrogen retention, sodium excretion, and the parathyroid-vitamin D axis. Twenty-four-hour urinary nitrogen excretion decreased from 8.00 +/- 0.33 to 5.01 +/- 0.33 g (P less than 0.001), and sodium excretion decreased from 45.9 +/- 2.96 to 21.2 +/- 3.48 mmol/day (P less than 0.001). Serum calcium concentrations did not change, but serum inorganic phosphorus levels of 1.08 +/- 0.04 mmol/L at baseline increased significantly after rhGH treatment to 1.33 +/- 0.04 mmol/L (P less than 0.001). Increases were also observed in circulating PTH (53.2 +/- 6 vs. 39.5 +/- 4.2 ng/L; P less than 0.01) and calcitriol (82.8 vs. 65.8 pmol/L; P less than 0.05). A rise in serum osteocalcin (10.3 +/- .86 vs. 8.0 +/- 0.5 micrograms/L; P less than 0.05) was accompanied by increased urinary excretion of hydroxyproline (628 +/- 63 vs. 406 +/- 44 mumol/day; P less than 0.01). Despite the reduction in sodium excretion, marked increases were observed in urinary calcium (6.04 +/- 0.97 vs. 3.27 +/- 0.40 mmol/day; P less than 0.01). rhGH significantly impaired oral glucose tolerance and reduced insulin sensitivity, but was otherwise well tolerated and produced no systematic changes in weight or blood pressure. The results of this study indicate that rhGH requires further study as a potential agent for attenuating or reversing the loss of muscle and bone in elderly people.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2006
                November 2006
                30 November 2006
                : 66
                : 6
                : 257-267
                Affiliations
                Centre for Clinical Endocrinology, St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, QMUL, London, UK
                Article
                95168 Horm Res 2006;66:257–267
                10.1159/000095168
                16914933
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, References: 35, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Original Paper

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