Background/Aims: This study was designed to determine whether previous Cushing’s disease (CD) or prolactinoma (PRL) could exert adverse effects additional to those of growth hormone (GH) deficiency as a consequence of variable degrees of prior hypogonadism or hypercatabolism. We report the effects of 5 years GH treatment in 124 GH deficiency adults; 42 patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA), 43 with treated PRL and 39 with treated CD. Methods: Fasting plasma glucose, HbA<sub>1c</sub>, lipoprotein profile, anthropometry and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured at baseline, 6 months and annually up to 5 years. Results: Mean body mass index remained unchanged in the PRL group and tended to increase in the NFPA group. In contrast, body mass index decreased in the CD group. Decreases in waist and waist/hip ratio were seen in all groups at 6 months. Decreases in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were seen in all groups and remained sustained at 5 years. Plasma glucose and HbA<sub>1c</sub> increased at 6 months. Subsequently, plasma glucose returned to baseline values at 5 years; in contrast, HbA<sub>1c </sub>remained unchanged at the end of the study. Baseline lumbar spine and hip BMD were lower in the PRL and CD groups than in the NFPA group, decreased over 1 year in all groups and subsequently increased by 2 years in NFPA with a subsequent increase in lumbar spine BMD in PRL and CD groups delayed to 3–5 years. Conclusions: Baseline characteristics and response to GH replacement are qualitatively similar in NFPA, PRL and CD patients. Because improvements in BMD occur later in PRL and CD patients, an extended trial of GH therapy may be indicated in those patients who were commenced on GH therapy as an additional treatment for reduced BMD.