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      Clinically Important Deterioration Among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Treated with Nebulized Glycopyrrolate: A Post Hoc Analysis of Pooled Data from Two Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Studies

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          Using a composite endpoint, pooled data from two 12-week Phase III placebo-controlled trials (GOLDEN 3, NCT02347761; GOLDEN 4, NCT02347774) were analyzed to determine whether glycopyrrolate inhalation solution (25 mcg and 50 mcg) administered twice daily (BID) via the eFlow ® Closed System nebulizer (GLY) reduced the risk of clinically important deterioration (CID) in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD.


          CID was defined as ≥100-mL decrease from baseline in post-bronchodilator trough forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1), or ≥4-unit increase in baseline St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score, or moderate/severe exacerbation. The relative treatment effect of GLY versus placebo on the odds of CID (any and by component endpoints) was expressed as the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Subgroups categorized by age (<65/≥65 years), sex, smoking status (current/former), long-acting beta agonist (LABA) use, FEV 1 (<50%/≥50%), and peak inspiratory flow rate (PIFR) (<60 L/min/≥60 L/min) were analyzed.


          Compared to placebo, GLY 25 mcg and 50 mcg BID over 12 weeks significantly reduced the risk of CID by 50% (OR: 0.50 [0.37–0.68]) and 40% (OR: 0.60 [0.44–0.80]), respectively. Subjects treated with GLY 25 mcg BID were 59% less likely to experience CID in FEV 1 (OR: 0.41 [0.27–0.62]) and 48% less likely to perceive CID in health status (OR: 0.52 [0.37–0.73]). Statistically significant reductions were also observed at the higher dose. The incidence of moderate/severe exacerbations was low and comparable among the cohorts. GLY 25 mcg BID was significantly more effective than placebo (p<0.05) in preventing CID irrespective of age, smoking status, LABA use, COPD severity, or PIFR. Subjects <65 years (OR 0.45 [0.29–0.68]) and those with PIFR <60 L/min (OR 0.36 [0.20–0.67]) exhibited the largest benefit.


          Nebulized GLY over 12 weeks significantly reduced the risk of CID and provided greater short-term stability in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Lung-Function Trajectories Leading to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is thought to result from an accelerated decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) over time. Yet it is possible that a normal decline in FEV1 could also lead to COPD in persons whose maximally attained FEV1 is less than population norms.
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            St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire: MCID

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              Toward a consensus definition for COPD exacerbations.

              In patients with COPD, an acute worsening of respiratory symptoms is often described as an exacerbation. Exacerbations are associated with a significant increase in mortality, hospitalization, and health-care utilization, but there is currently no widely accepted definition of what constitutes an exacerbation of COPD. This paper summarizes the discussions of the workshop, "COPD: Working Towards a Greater Understanding," in which the participants proposed the following working definition of an exacerbation of COPD: a sustained worsening of the patient's condition, from the stable state and beyond normal day-to-day variations, that is acute in onset and necessitates a change in regular medication in a patient with underlying COPD.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                29 September 2020
                : 15
                : 2309-2318
                [1 ]Clinical Research Institute of Southern Oregon , Medford, OR, USA
                [2 ]Evidera , Bethesda, MD, USA
                [3 ]Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc ., Marlborough, MA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Xiaoli Niu Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc ., 84 Waterford Dr, Marlborough, MA01752, USATel +1 508 357 7863 Email
                © 2020 Kerwin et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms (

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 6, References: 28, Pages: 10
                Original Research


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