Liberia's prolonged post-conflict transition has negatively impacted its health infrastructure, including the functioning of its health care delivery system. Considering the current national health crises, a study was conducted to identify research gaps and the need to propose changes for improving the health care delivery system in the country. The study results clearly demonstrated a lack of HIV/AIDS research infrastructure including organizational structure, linkages, leadership, champions, expertise, resources, and policies and procedures. Alignment of research needs and practice, and research use to support HIV/AIDS service delivery programmes in the country was also limited. An international research capacity-building partnership is proposed as an effective planned change strategy to strengthen HIV/AIDS-related research infrastructure and to inform management and practice within the Liberian HIV/AIDS service delivery system. A proposed capacity-building planning model can also strengthen research infrastructure and the production and use of research to positively impact the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Liberia and other developing countries.