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      Notes on the genus Tunga (Siphonaptera: Tungidae) II – neosomes, morphology, classification, and other taxonomic notes Translated title: Notes sur le genre Tunga (Siphonaptera: Tungidae) II – néosomes, morphologie, classification et autres notes taxonomiques

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          This review focuses on the neosomes, morphology, and taxonomy of adult species of the genus Tunga, complementing the previously published data on the phylogeny, ecology, and pathogenic role. Neosomes are structures formed after penetration of adult females into the skin of hosts resulting in significant enlargement, being the most characteristic and most frequently observed form in hosts. Neosomes can be differentiated by shape, measurements, and sites of attachment to principal hosts. The taxonomic value and morphometric data of the most widely used characteristics to separate species – such as frontal curvature, head chaetotaxy, preoral internal sclerotization, ventral and dorsal genal lobes, eyes, maxillary palps, fusion of pronotum and mesonotum, metacoxae, metatarsi chaetotaxy, spermatheca (females), manubrium, basimere, telomere, and phallosome (males) – are comparatively analyzed. The sexes, individual variations, undescribed species, higher taxa, as well as a proposal for division of the genus into two subgenera ( Tunga and Brevidigita) are presented (as previously given by Wang). A key for females, males, and gravid females (neosomes) also is included for identifying the 13 known species. Data on host specificity and geographical distribution may also support the identification of Tunga species because some sand fleas and their hosts may have co-evolved.

          Translated abstract

          Ce travail est axé sur les néosomes, la morphologie et la taxonomie des adultes du genre Tunga, complétant les données déjà publiées sur la phylogénie, l’écologie et le rôle pathogène de ces espèces. Les néosomes sont des structures élaborées après la pénétration de la femelle adulte dans les téguments de l’hôte: ils montrent une taille significativement plus grande et sont les formations les plus caractéristiques et les plus fréquemment rencontrées chez les hôtes. Les néosomes peuvent être différenciés par leur forme, leurs dimensions et les zones de localisation sur leurs principaux hôtes. La valeur taxonomique et les données morphométriques des caractères les plus utilisés pour la séparation des espèces – tels que la courbure frontale, la chétotaxie céphalique, les sclérifications préorales internes, le lobe génal interne et externe, la forme et le développement de l’œil, la conformation des palpes maxillaires, le degré de fusion du pronotum et du mesonotum, la forme et la chétotaxie des metacoxae, la chétotaxie des métatarses, chez les femelles la forme de la spermathèque, chez les mâles, la forme du manubrium, du basimère, du télomère et du phallosome, sont comparées et discutées. Les sexes, les variations individuelles, les taxa non décrits, les classifications de plus haut niveau, de même qu’une proposition (déjà donnée par Wang) de diviser ce genre en deux sous-genres ( Tunga and Brevidigita), sont exposés. Une clé des 13 espèces décrites est proposée pour les femelles, les mâles et les femelles gravides, ou néosomes. La spécificité et la distribution géographique peuvent également aider à l’identification des espèces de Tunga car diverses puces-chiques semblent avoir co-évolué avec leurs hôtes.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Investigations on the biology, epidemiology, pathology and control of Tunga penetrans in Brazil: I. Natural history of tungiasis in man.

          Tungiasis is an important health problem in poor communities in Brazil and is associated with severe morbidity, particularly in children. The causative agent, the female flea Tunga penetrans, burrows into the skin of its host, where it develops, produces eggs and eventually dies. From the beginning of the penetration to the elimination of the carcass of the ectoparasite by skin repair mechanisms, the whole process takes 4-6 weeks. The present study is based on specimens from 86 patients, for some of whom the exact time of penetration was known. Lesions were photographed, described in detail and biopsied. Biopsies were examined histologically and by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Based on clinical, SEM and histological findings, the "Fortaleza classification" was elaborated. This allows the natural history of tungiasis to be divided into five stages: (1) the penetration phase, (2) the phase of beginning hypertrophy, (3) the white halo phase, (4) the involution phase and (5) residues in the host's skin. Based on morphological and functional criteria, stages 3 and 4 are divided into further substages. The proposed Fortaleza classification can be used for clinical and epidemiological purposes. It allows a more precise diagnosis, enables the assessment of chemotherapeutic approaches and helps to evaluate control measures at the community level.
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            Sand flea (Tunga spp.) infections in humans and domestic animals: state of the art.

            Tungiasis is a parasitic disease of humans and animals caused by fleas (Siphonaptera) belonging to the genus Tunga. Two species, Tunga penetrans (L.) and Tunga trimamillata, out of 10 described to date, are known to affect man or domestic animals; the other eight are exclusive to a few species of wild mammals. Tunga penetrans and T. trimamillata originated from Latin America, although the first species is also found in sub-Saharan Africa (between 20 degrees N and 25 degrees S). Hundreds of millions of people are at risk of infection in more than 70 nations, mostly in developing countries. The second species has been reported only in Ecuador and Peru. Males and non-fertilized females of Tunga are haematophagous ectoparasites; pregnant females penetrate the skin where, following dilatation of the abdomen, they increase enormously in size (neosomy) and cause inflammatory and ulcerative processes of varying severity. The importance of Tunga infection in humans concerns its frequent localization in the foot, which sometimes causes very serious difficulty in walking, thereby reducing the subject's ability to work and necessitating medical and surgical intervention. Tungiasis in domestic animals can be responsible for economic losses resulting from flea-induced lesions and secondary infections. Because tungiasis represents a serious problem for tropical public health and because of the recent description of a new species (Tunga trimamillata), it seems appropriate to review current knowledge of the morphology, molecular taxonomy, epidemiology, pathology, treatment and control of sand fleas of the genus Tunga.
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              Résumé of the Siphonaptera (Insecta) of the world.

               Robert Lewis (1998)
              The world fauna of the order Siphonaptera is reviewed with respect to undescribed taxa, endangered species, taxonomic specialists, developmental stages, ultrastructure, taxonomic characters, host specificity, literature, fossil record, and the phylogenetic affinities of and within the order. The 15 currently recognized families are discussed with respect to their subfamilial, tribal, and generic classification. The numbers of species in these taxa are discussed and their general distribution and host preferences are briefly outlined. The current numbers of tribes, genera, and species, including invalid names, are listed.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                17 December 2014
                : 21
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2014/01 )
                [1 ] Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Caixa Postal 486, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus UFMG Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais 31270-901 Brazil
                [2 ] Laboratoire de Parasitologie et Zoologie appliquée, Faculté de Médecine 2, avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard 35043 Rennes Cedex France
                [3 ] Institut de Parasitologie de l’Ouest, Faculté de Médecine 2, avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard 35043 Rennes Cedex France
                [4 ] Laboratório de Pesquisas Clínicas, Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
                [5 ] Laboratoire de Parasitologie, Mycologie et Immunologie parasitaire, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire 2 rue Henri Le Guilloux 32033 Rennes Cedex France
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: linardi@ 123456icb.ufmg.br
                parasite140088 10.1051/parasite/2014067
                © P.M. Linardi et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 9, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 53, Pages: 17
                Review Article

                taxonomy, siphonaptera, sand fleas, neosomes, morphology, tunga


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