Aims: This review sets out to cover the areas of radiology and imaging concerned with the structure and function of the kidney which may not be familiar to those outside the field. Methods: A brief historical introduction to renal imaging is followed in more detail by descriptions of the use of computed tomography in 3D reconstruction, angiography, and functional studies. Comparison with magnetic resonance imaging is made and the use of radiological techniques in intervention. Conclusion: Radiology can provide far more information about the kidneys than mere anatomy. Research promises the possibility of reducing the number of tests required to provide structural and functional information.