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      The genetic architecture of phosphorus efficiency in sorghum involves pleiotropic QTL for root morphology and grain yield under low phosphorus availability in the soil

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          Abstract

          Background

          Phosphorus (P) fixation on aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) oxides in soil clays restricts P availability for crops cultivated on highly weathered tropical soils, which are common in developing countries. Hence, P deficiency becomes a major obstacle for global food security. We used multi-trait quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping to study the genetic architecture of P efficiency and to explore the importance of root traits on sorghum grain yield on a tropical low-P soil.

          Results

          P acquisition efficiency was the most important component of P efficiency, and both traits were highly correlated with grain yield under low P availability. Root surface area was positively associated with grain yield. The guinea parent, SC283, contributed 58% of all favorable alleles detected by single-trait mapping. Multi-trait mapping detected 14 grain yield and/or root morphology QTLs. Tightly linked or pleiotropic QTL underlying the surface area of fine roots (1–2 mm in diameter) and grain yield were detected at positions 1–7 megabase pairs (Mb) and 71 Mb on chromosome 3, respectively, and a root diameter/grain yield QTL was detected at 7 Mb on chromosome 7. All these QTLs were near sorghum homologs of the rice serine/threonine kinase, OsPSTOL1. The SbPSTOL1 genes on chromosome 3, Sb03g006765 at 7 Mb and Sb03g031690 at 60 Mb were more highly expressed in SC283, which donated the favorable alleles at all QTLs found nearby SbPSTOL1 genes. The Al tolerance gene, SbMATE, may also influence a grain yield QTL on chromosome 3. Another PSTOL1-like gene , Sb07g02840, appears to enhance grain yield via small increases in root diameter. Co-localization analyses suggested a role for other genes, such as a sorghum homolog of the Arabidopsis ubiquitin-conjugating E2 enzyme, phosphate 2 ( PHO2), on grain yield advantage conferred by the elite parent, BR007 allele.

          Conclusions

          Genetic determinants conferring higher root surface area and slight increases in fine root diameter may favor P uptake, thereby enhancing grain yield under low-P availability in the soil. Molecular markers for SbPSTOL1 genes and for QTL increasing grain yield by non-root morphology-based mechanisms hold promise in breeding strategies aimed at developing sorghum cultivars adapted to low-P soils.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (10.1186/s12870-019-1689-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references47

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          A simple regression method for mapping quantitative trait loci in line crosses using flanking markers.

          The use of flanking marker methods has proved to be a powerful tool for the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the segregating generations derived from crosses between inbred lines. Methods to analyse these data, based on maximum-likelihood, have been developed and provide good estimates of QTL effects in some situations. Maximum-likelihood methods are, however, relatively complex and can be computationally slow. In this paper we develop methods for mapping QTL based on multiple regression which can be applied using any general statistical package. We use the example of mapping in an F(2) population and show that these regression methods produce very similar results to those obtained using maximum likelihood. The relative simplicity of the regression methods means that models with more than a single QTL can be explored and we give examples of two lined loci and of two interacting loci. Other models, for example with more than two QTL, with environmental fixed effects, with between family variance or for threshold traits, could be fitted in a similar way. The ease, speed of application and generality of regression methods for flanking marker analysis, and the good estimates they obtain, suggest that they should provide the method of choice for the analysis of QTL mapping data from inbred line crosses.
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            Phosphorus acquisition and use: critical adaptations by plants for securing a nonrenewable resource

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              Root phenes for enhanced soil exploration and phosphorus acquisition: tools for future crops.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                karinecosta23@gmail.com , karine.bernardino@ufv.br
                marta.pastina@embrapa.br
                cicero.menezes@embrapa.br
                sylvia.sousa@embrapa.br
                laianesm@gmail.com
                g.acjunior@gmail.com
                claudia.guimaraes@embrapa.br
                beatriz.barros@embrapa.br
                ldcesilva@gmail.com
                carneiro@ufv.br
                robert.schaffert@embrapa.br
                leon.kochian@gifs.ca
                jurandir.magalhaes@embrapa.br
                Journal
                BMC Plant Biol
                BMC Plant Biol
                BMC Plant Biology
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2229
                28 February 2019
                28 February 2019
                2019
                : 19
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0541 873X, GRID grid.460200.0, Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, ; Rodovia MG 424, km 65, Caixa Postal 151, Sete Lagoas, MG 35701-970 Brazil
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8338 6359, GRID grid.12799.34, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, ; Avenida Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n, Viçosa, MG 36570-900 Brazil
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2181 4888, GRID grid.8430.f, Departamento de Biologia Geral, , Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, ; Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG 31270-901 Brazil
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2154 235X, GRID grid.25152.31, Global Institute for Food Security, University of Saskatchewan, ; Saskatoon, SK S7N 4J8 Canada
                [5 ]Present Address: Helix Sementes, Rua Arnaldo Luiz de Oliveira, 75, Setor D, Bela Vista, Patos de Minas, MG 38703-240 Brazil
                Article
                1689
                10.1186/s12870-019-1689-y
                6394046
                30819116
                b495a4b7-d8af-47c6-9ec2-a2fd23cca214
                © The Author(s). 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (BR)
                Award ID: RED-00053-16 and APQ-02449-16
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003593, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico;
                Award ID: PQ
                Funded by: Embrapa Macroprogram
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Plant science & Botany
                phosphorus deficiency,phosphorus stress,acid soils,root system architecture

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