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      Molecular mechanisms employed by enteric bacterial pathogens to antagonise host innate immunity

      , ,
      Current Opinion in Microbiology
      Elsevier BV

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          Macrophage plasticity, polarization, and function in health and disease.

          Macrophages are heterogeneous and their phenotype and functions are regulated by the surrounding micro-environment. Macrophages commonly exist in two distinct subsets: 1) Classically activated or M1 macrophages, which are pro-inflammatory and polarized by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) either alone or in association with Th1 cytokines such as IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and produce pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-12, IL-23, and TNF-α; and 2) Alternatively activated or M2 macrophages, which are anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory and polarized by Th2 cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-13 and produce anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-β. M1 and M2 macrophages have different functions and transcriptional profiles. They have unique abilities by destroying pathogens or repair the inflammation-associated injury. It is known that M1/M2 macrophage balance polarization governs the fate of an organ in inflammation or injury. When the infection or inflammation is severe enough to affect an organ, macrophages first exhibit the M1 phenotype to release TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-12, and IL-23 against the stimulus. But, if M1 phase continues, it can cause tissue damage. Therefore, M2 macrophages secrete high amounts of IL-10 and TGF-β to suppress the inflammation, contribute to tissue repair, remodeling, vasculogenesis, and retain homeostasis. In this review, we first discuss the basic biology of macrophages including origin, differentiation and activation, tissue distribution, plasticity and polarization, migration, antigen presentation capacity, cytokine and chemokine production, metabolism, and involvement of microRNAs in macrophage polarization and function. Secondly, we discuss the protective and pathogenic role of the macrophage subsets in normal and pathological pregnancy, anti-microbial defense, anti-tumor immunity, metabolic disease and obesity, asthma and allergy, atherosclerosis, fibrosis, wound healing, and autoimmunity.
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            Burden and aetiology of diarrhoeal disease in infants and young children in developing countries (the Global Enteric Multicenter Study, GEMS): a prospective, case-control study.

            Diarrhoeal diseases cause illness and death among children younger than 5 years in low-income countries. We designed the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) to identify the aetiology and population-based burden of paediatric diarrhoeal disease in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. The GEMS is a 3-year, prospective, age-stratified, matched case-control study of moderate-to-severe diarrhoea in children aged 0-59 months residing in censused populations at four sites in Africa and three in Asia. We recruited children with moderate-to-severe diarrhoea seeking care at health centres along with one to three randomly selected matched community control children without diarrhoea. From patients with moderate-to-severe diarrhoea and controls, we obtained clinical and epidemiological data, anthropometric measurements, and a faecal sample to identify enteropathogens at enrolment; one follow-up home visit was made about 60 days later to ascertain vital status, clinical outcome, and interval growth. We enrolled 9439 children with moderate-to-severe diarrhoea and 13,129 control children without diarrhoea. By analysing adjusted population attributable fractions, most attributable cases of moderate-to-severe diarrhoea were due to four pathogens: rotavirus, Cryptosporidium, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli producing heat-stable toxin (ST-ETEC; with or without co-expression of heat-labile enterotoxin), and Shigella. Other pathogens were important in selected sites (eg, Aeromonas, Vibrio cholerae O1, Campylobacter jejuni). Odds of dying during follow-up were 8·5-fold higher in patients with moderate-to-severe diarrhoea than in controls (odd ratio 8·5, 95% CI 5·8-12·5, p<0·0001); most deaths (167 [87·9%]) occurred during the first 2 years of life. Pathogens associated with increased risk of case death were ST-ETEC (hazard ratio [HR] 1·9; 0·99-3·5) and typical enteropathogenic E coli (HR 2·6; 1·6-4·1) in infants aged 0-11 months, and Cryptosporidium (HR 2·3; 1·3-4·3) in toddlers aged 12-23 months. Interventions targeting five pathogens (rotavirus, Shigella, ST-ETEC, Cryptosporidium, typical enteropathogenic E coli) can substantially reduce the burden of moderate-to-severe diarrhoea. New methods and accelerated implementation of existing interventions (rotavirus vaccine and zinc) are needed to prevent disease and improve outcomes. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Inflammatory caspases are innate immune receptors for intracellular LPS.

              The murine caspase-11 non-canonical inflammasome responds to various bacterial infections. Caspase-11 activation-induced pyroptosis, in response to cytoplasmic lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is critical for endotoxic shock in mice. The mechanism underlying cytosolic LPS sensing and the responsible pattern recognition receptor are unknown. Here we show that human monocytes, epithelial cells and keratinocytes undergo necrosis upon cytoplasmic delivery of LPS. LPS-induced cytotoxicity was mediated by human caspase-4 that could functionally complement murine caspase-11. Human caspase-4 and the mouse homologue caspase-11 (hereafter referred to as caspase-4/11) and also human caspase-5, directly bound to LPS and lipid A with high specificity and affinity. LPS associated with endogenous caspase-11 in pyroptotic cells. Insect-cell purified caspase-4/11 underwent oligomerization upon LPS binding, resulting in activation of the caspases. Underacylated lipid IVa and lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter sphaeroides (LPS-RS) could bind to caspase-4/11 but failed to induce their oligomerization and activation. LPS binding was mediated by the CARD domain of the caspase. Binding-deficient CARD-domain point mutants did not respond to LPS with oligomerization or activation and failed to induce pyroptosis upon LPS electroporation or bacterial infections. The function of caspase-4/5/11 represents a new mode of pattern recognition in immunity and also an unprecedented means of caspase activation.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Current Opinion in Microbiology
                Current Opinion in Microbiology
                Elsevier BV
                13695274
                February 2021
                February 2021
                : 59
                : 58-64
                Article
                10.1016/j.mib.2020.07.015
                b4a58b01-efdc-43c2-90cc-1e8d42b0db39
                © 2021

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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