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      Heavy Metals in Soil and Crops of an Intensively Farmed Area: A Case Study in Yucheng City, Shandong Province, China

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          Abstract

          Yucheng City is located in northwestern Shandong Province, China, and is situated on the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, the largest alluvial plain in China. In this study, 86 surface soil samples were collected in Yucheng City and analyzed for cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic matter (SOM), pH, available phosphorus (avail. P), phosphorus (P), aluminum (Al), and iron (Fe). These soils were also analyzed for ‘total’ chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb), together with 92 wheat samples and 37 corn samples. There was no obvious heavy metal contamination in the soil and irrigation water. But the long-term accumulation of heavy metals in soil has lead to an increase of Ni, As, Hg and Pb concentrations in some of wheat and corn samples and Cd in wheat samples. Because of the numerous sources of soil heavy metals and the lower level of heavy metal in irrigation water, there is no significant relation between soil heavy metal concentrations and irrigation water concentrations. Cr, Ni were mainly from the indigenous clay minerals according to multivariate analysis. Little contribution to soil heavy metal contents from agricultural fertilizer use was found and the local anomalies of As, Cd, Hg, Pb in wheat and corn grain are attributed to the interactive effects of irrigation and fertilizer used. Aerial Hg, however may also be the source of Hg for soil, wheat and corn.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Assessing risk of heavy metals from consuming food grown on sewage irrigated soils and food chain transfer.

          Heavy metal pollution of soils resulting from sewage and wastewater irrigation is causing major concern due to the potential risk involved. In the present study Musi River and its environs were assessed for heavy metal contamination. The study area was assessed for Zn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co and Pb in soils, forage grass, milk from cattle, leafy and non-leafy vegetables. Partitioning pattern of soil revealed high levels of Zn, Cr, and Cu associated with labile fractions, making them more mobile and plant available. The associated risk was assessed using hazard quotient (HQ). Human risk was assessed in people known to consume these contaminated foods by analyzing metals concentrations in venous blood and urine. Results showed high amounts of Pb, Zn, Cr, and Ni compared to permissible limits. HQ was found to be high for Zn followed by Cr and Pb with special reference to leafy vegetables particularly spinach and amaranthus.
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            Heavy metals contents in agricultural topsoils in the Ebro basin (Spain). Application of the multivariate geoestatistical methods to study spatial variations.

            In this work the content of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) and other parameters (the pH, organic matter, carbonates and granulometric fraction) in agricultural topsoil in the Ebro basin are quantified, based on 624 samples collected according to an 8 by 8 km square mesh. The average concentrations (mg/kg) obtained were: Cd 0.415+/-0.163, Cr 20.27+/-13.21, Cu 17.33+/-14.97, Ni 20.50+/-22.71, Pb 17.54+/-10.41, Zn 17.53+/-24.19 and Hg 35.6+/-42.05 microg/kg. The concentration levels are relatively low in areas of high pH and low organic matter content concentration. The results of factor analysis group Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in F1 and Cr y Ni in F2. The spatial heavy metals component maps based on geostatistical analysis, show definite association of these factors with the soil parent material. The local anomalies (found in Cu, Zn and Pb) are attributed to anthropogenic influence.
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              Site-specific risk assessment in contaminated vegetable gardens.

              A field survey was carried on in Gyöngyösoroszi, Hungary, near to an abandoned lead/zinc mine to analyse the metal contamination of flooded and non-flooded vegetable gardens, and to evaluate the health risks to local population. Contamination levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury and zinc were measured in soil and homegrown vegetable samples and bioconcentration factors and hazard indices were calculated. The high metal contents of flooded vegetable gardens were caused by floods, the results indicated significant differences between flooded and non-flooded vegetable gardens. The most accumulating vegetable was sorrel, the most mobile elements were cadmium and lead. Arsenic was not available for vegetables. The health risk was calculated for two exposure routes: ingestion of soil and ingestion of vegetables. The site-specific exposure parameters were established after a population based survey and a special equation was created to calculate the health risk due to homegrown vegetable consumption. The highest risk was associated with ingestion of vegetables, the most hazardous element being lead. The hazard index did not exceed the threshold value of one in flooded or non-flooded gardens. The analyses of health risk indicated that despite the high metal concentrations of soil the contamination of vegetable gardens does not pose an unacceptable risk to the inhabitants of the village.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                101238455
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                1 February 2010
                February 2010
                : 7
                : 2
                : 395-412
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101, China; E-Mails: jial.07b@ 123456igsnrr.ac.cn (L.J.); yhli@ 123456igsnrr.ac.cn (Y.L.); yangls@ 123456igsnrr.ac.cn (L.Y.)
                [2 ]Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10049, China
                Author notes
                [* ] Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: wangwy@ 123456igsnrr.ac.cn ; Tel.: +86-10-6488-9286; Fax: +86-10-6485-6504.
                Article
                ijerph-07-00395
                10.3390/ijerph7020395
                2872287
                20616981
                © 2010 by the authors; licensee Molecular Diversity Preservation International, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Public health

                heavy metals, multivariate statistics, agricultural activities, yucheng city

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