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      Focusing on outcomes: Making the most of COPD interventions

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          Abstract

          A number of excellent intervention studies related to clinical and psychosocial aspects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been undertaken in the recent past. A range of outcomes have been examined including pulmonary function, health care use, quality of life, anxiety and depression, ambulation, exercise capacity, and self-efficacy. The purpose of this narrative review was to a) consider clinical, psychosocial, and educational interventions for people living with COPD in light of the health related outcomes that they have produced, b) identify the type of interventions most associated with outcomes, c) examine work related to COPD interventions as it has evolved regarding theory and models compared to work in asthma, and d) explore implications for future COPD research. Studies reviewed comprised large scale comprehensive reviews including randomized clinical trials and meta-analysis as these forms of investigation engender the greatest confidence in clinicians and health care researchers. Extant research suggests that the most significant improvements in COPD health care utilization have been realized from interventions specifically designed to enhance disease management by patients. A range of interventions have produced modest changes in quality of life. Evidence of impact for other outcomes and for a particular type of intervention is not strong. Research in other chronic diseases, particularly asthma, suggests that interventions grounded in learning theory and models of behavior change can consistently produce desired results for patients and clinicians. Use of a model of self-regulation may enhance COPD interventions. Although the extent to which COPD efforts can benefit from the experience in other conditions is a question, more outcome focused intervention studies using more robust theoretical approaches may enhance COPD results, especially regarding health care use and quality of life.

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          Most cited references 51

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          Chronic disease self-management program: 2-year health status and health care utilization outcomes.

          To assess the 1- and 2-year health status, health care utilization and self-efficacy outcomes for the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP). The major hypothesis is that during the 2-year period CDSMP participants will experience improvements or less deterioration than expected in health status and reductions in health care utilization. Longitudinal design as follow-up to a randomized trial. Community. Eight hundred thirty-one participants 40 years and older with heart disease, lung disease, stroke, or arthritis participated in the CDSMP. At 1- and 2-year intervals respectively 82% and 76% of eligible participants completed data. Health status (self-rated health, disability, social/role activities limitations, energy/fatigue, and health distress), health care utilization (ER/outpatient visits, times hospitalized, and days in hospital), and perceived self-efficacy were measured. Compared with baseline for each of the 2 years, ER/outpatient visits and health distress were reduced (P <0.05). Self-efficacy improved (P <0.05). The rate of increase is that which is expected in 1 year. There were no other significant changes. A low-cost program for promoting health self-management can improve elements of health status while reducing health care costs in populations with diverse chronic diseases.
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            Reduction of hospital utilization in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a disease-specific self-management intervention.

            Self-management interventions improve various outcomes for many chronic diseases. The definite place of self-management in the care of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not been established. We evaluated the effect of a continuum of self-management, specific to COPD, on the use of hospital services and health status among patients with moderate to severe disease. A multicenter, randomized clinical trial was carried out in 7 hospitals from February 1998 to July 1999. All patients had advanced COPD with at least 1 hospitalization for exacerbation in the previous year. Patients were assigned to a self-management program or to usual care. The intervention consisted of a comprehensive patient education program administered through weekly visits by trained health professionals over a 2-month period with monthly telephone follow-up. Over 12 months, data were collected regarding the primary outcome and number of hospitalizations; secondary outcomes included emergency visits and patient health status. Hospital admissions for exacerbation of COPD were reduced by 39.8% in the intervention group compared with the usual care group (P =.01), and admissions for other health problems were reduced by 57.1% (P =.01). Emergency department visits were reduced by 41.0% (P =.02) and unscheduled physician visits by 58.9% (P =.003). Greater improvements in the impact subscale and total quality-of-life scores were observed in the intervention group at 4 months, although some of the benefits were maintained only for the impact score at 12 months. A continuum of self-management for COPD patients provided by a trained health professional can significantly reduce the utilization of health care services and improve health status. This approach of care can be implemented within normal practice.
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              Effects of pulmonary rehabilitation on physiologic and psychosocial outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

              To compare the effects of comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation with those of education alone on physiologic and psychosocial outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Randomized clinical trial. University medical center. 119 outpatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that was stable while patients received a standard medical regimen. Patients were randomly assigned to either an 8-week comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation program or to an 8-week education program. Pulmonary rehabilitation consisted of twelve 4-hour sessions that included education, physical and respiratory care instruction, psychosocial support, and supervised exercise training. Monthly reinforcement sessions were held for 1 year. The education group attended four 2-hour sessions that included video-tapes, lectures, and discussions but not individual instruction or exercise training. Pulmonary function, maximum exercise tolerance and endurance, gas exchange, symptoms of perceived breathlessness and muscle fatigue with exercise, shortness of breath, self-efficacy for walking, depression, general quality of well-being, and hospitalizations associated with pulmonary diseases. Patients were followed for 6 years. Compared with education alone, comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation produced a significantly greater increase in maximal exercise tolerance (+1.5 metabolic equivalents [METS] compared with +0.6 METS [P < 0.001]; maximal oxygen uptake, +0.11 L/min compared with +0.03 L/min [P = 0.06]), exercise endurance (+10.5 minutes compared with +1.3 minutes [P < 0.001]), symptoms of perceived breathlessness (score of -1.5 compared with +0.2 [P < 0.001]) and muscle fatigue (score of -1.4 compared with -0.2 [P < 0.01]), shortness of breath (score of -7.0 compared with +0.6 [P < 0.01]), and self-efficacy for walking (score of +1.4 compared with +0.1 [P < 0.05]). There were slight but nonsignificant differences in survival (67% compared with 56% [P = 0.32]) and duration of hospital stay (-2.4 days/patient per year compared with +1.3 days/patient per year [P = 0.20]). Measures of lung function, depression, and general quality of life did not differ between groups. Differences tended to diminish after 1 year of follow-up. Comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation significantly improved exercise performance and symptoms for patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Benefits were partially maintained for at least 1 year and tended to diminish after that time.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2009
                2009
                15 April 2009
                : 4
                : 61-77
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Center for Managing Chronic Disease, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
                [2 ] Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, England, UK
                [3 ] Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Noreen M Clark Myron E Wegman Distinguished University Professor, Director, Center for Managing Chronic Disease, University of Michigan, 109 Observatory, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029, USA, Tel +1 734 763 1457, Fax +1 734 763 9115, Email nmclark@ 123456umich.edu
                Article
                copd-4-061
                2672794
                19436690
                © 2009 Clark et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Reviews

                Respiratory medicine

                self-regulation, disease management, copd

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