An increasing number of infections of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in humans has been reported in South-East Asia and other areas of the world. High mortality (>60%) of this viral infection and its pathosis of systemic infection are features of this new human disease. Moreover, there is great concern that this avian H5N1 virus could cause a pandemic of new influenza in humans, once it acquires the ability for human to human transmission. To prevent such highly contagious infectious diseases as influenza, it is essential to prepare effective vaccines. Especially in the case of new influenza virus, we cannot predict the strain which will cause the pandemic. In such a situation, a vaccine that induces cross-protective immunity against variant viruses is extremely important. However currently used parenteral seasonal influenza vaccine is strain-specific, and is less effective against variant viruses. In order to overcome the weakness of current vaccines we need to learn from the immune responses induced by natural infection with influenza viruses. In the case of mucosally acquired acute respiratory infection such as influenza, mucosal immunity induced by natural infection plays important role in protection against the infection, as mucosal secretory IgA antibody plays an important role in cross-protection. In this review we describe the advantages and development of mucosal vaccine against highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses.