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      Effect of interleukin-6 receptor blockade on surrogates of vascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis: MEASURE, a randomised, placebo-controlled study

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          Abstract

          Objectives

          The interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) blocker tocilizumab (TCZ) reduces inflammatory disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) but elevates lipid concentrations in some patients. We aimed to characterise the impact of IL-6R inhibition on established and novel risk factors in active RA.

          Methods

          Randomised, multicentre, two-part, phase III trial (24-week double-blind, 80-week open-label), MEASURE, evaluated lipid and lipoprotein levels, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle composition, markers of coagulation, thrombosis and vascular function by pulse wave velocity (PWV) in 132 patients with RA who received TCZ or placebo.

          Results

          Median total-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels increased in TCZ versus placebo recipients by week 12 (12.6% vs 1.7%, 28.1% vs 2.2%, 10.6% vs −1.9%, respectively; all p<0.01). There were no significant differences in mean small LDL, mean oxidised LDL or total HDL-C concentrations. However, HDL-associated serum amyloid A content decreased in TCZ recipients. TCZ also induced reductions (>30%) in secretory phospholipase A2-IIA, lipoprotein(a), fibrinogen and D-dimers and elevation of paraoxonase (all p<0.0001 vs placebo). The ApoB/ApoA1 ratio remained stable over time in both groups. PWV decreases were greater with placebo than TCZ at 12 weeks (adjusted mean difference 0.79 m/s (95% CI 0.22 to 1.35; p=0.0067)).

          Conclusions

          These data provide the first detailed evidence for the modulation of lipoprotein particles and other surrogates of vascular risk with IL-6R inhibition. When compared with placebo, TCZ induced elevations in LDL-C but altered HDL particles towards an anti-inflammatory composition and favourably modified most, but not all, measured vascular risk surrogates. The net effect of such changes for cardiovascular risk requires determination.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Expert consensus document on arterial stiffness: methodological issues and clinical applications.

          In recent years, great emphasis has been placed on the role of arterial stiffness in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Indeed, the assessment of arterial stiffness is increasingly used in the clinical assessment of patients. Although several papers have previously addressed the methodological issues concerning the various indices of arterial stiffness currently available, and their clinical applications, clinicians and researchers still report difficulties in selecting the most appropriate methodology for their specific use. This paper summarizes the proceedings of several meetings of the European Network for Non-invasive Investigation of Large Arteries and is aimed at providing an updated and practical overview of the most relevant methodological aspects and clinical applications in this area.
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            Progress and challenges in translating the biology of atherosclerosis.

            Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease of the arterial wall, and a leading cause of death and loss of productive life years worldwide. Research into the disease has led to many compelling hypotheses about the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic lesion formation and of complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Yet, despite these advances, we still lack definitive evidence to show that processes such as lipoprotein oxidation, inflammation and immunity have a crucial involvement in human atherosclerosis. Experimental atherosclerosis in animals furnishes an important research tool, but extrapolation to humans requires care. Understanding how to combine experimental and clinical science will provide further insight into atherosclerosis and could lead to new clinical applications.
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              EULAR evidence-based recommendations for cardiovascular risk management in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other forms of inflammatory arthritis.

              To develop evidence-based EULAR recommendations for cardiovascular (CV) risk management in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). A multidisciplinary expert committee was convened as a task force of the EULAR Standing Committee for Clinical Affairs (ESCCA), comprising 18 members including rheumatologists, cardiologists, internists and epidemiologists, representing nine European countries. Problem areas and related keywords for systematic literature research were identified. A systematic literature research was performed using MedLine, Embase and the Cochrane library through to May 2008. Based on this literature review and in accordance with the EULAR's "standardised operating procedures", the multidisciplinary steering committee formulated evidence-based and expert opinion-based recommendations for CV risk screening and management in patients with inflammatory arthritis. Annual CV risk assessment using national guidelines is recommended for all patients with RA and should be considered for all patients with AS and PsA. Any CV risk factors identified should be managed according to local guidelines. If no local guidelines are available, CV risk management should be carried out according to the SCORE function. In addition to appropriate CV risk management, aggressive suppression of the inflammatory process is recommended to further lower the CV risk. Ten recommendations were made for CV risk management in patients with RA, AS and PsA. The strength of the recommendations differed between RA on the one hand, and AS and PsA, on the other, as evidence for an increased CV risk is most compelling for RA.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ann Rheum Dis
                Ann. Rheum. Dis
                annrheumdis
                ard
                Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                0003-4967
                1468-2060
                April 2015
                24 December 2013
                : 74
                : 4
                : 694-702
                Affiliations
                [1 ]University of Glasgow , Glasgow, UK
                [2 ]Roche Products Ltd , Welwyn Garden City, UK
                [3 ]Columbia University , New York, New York, USA
                [4 ]Hospital for Special Surgery—Weill Cornell Medical College , New York, New York, USA
                [5 ]Centre Hospitalier de l'Université Laval , Quebec City, Quebec, Canada
                [6 ]Health Research of Oklahoma , Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA
                [7 ]Pacific Biomarkers , Seattle, Washington, USA
                [8 ]Roche , Nutley, New Jersey, USA
                Author notes

                Handling editor Tore K Kvien

                [Correspondence to ] Professor Iain B McInnes, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA, UK; Iain.McInnes@ 123456glasgow.ac.uk
                Article
                annrheumdis-2013-204345
                10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-204345
                4392313
                24368514
                Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions

                This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 3.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

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                Categories
                1506
                Clinical and Epidemiological Research
                Extended report
                Custom metadata
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                Immunology

                cardiovascular disease, lipids, inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis, dmards (biologic)

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