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      Genome sequence of Streptococcus mutans UA159, a cariogenic dental pathogen

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          Abstract

          Streptococcus mutans is the leading cause of dental caries (tooth decay) worldwide and is considered to be the most cariogenic of all of the oral streptococci. The genome of S. mutans UA159, a serotype c strain, has been completely sequenced and is composed of 2,030,936 base pairs. It contains 1,963 ORFs, 63% of which have been assigned putative functions. The genome analysis provides further insight into how S. mutans has adapted to surviving the oral environment through resource acquisition, defense against host factors, and use of gene products that maintain its niche against microbial competitors. S. mutans metabolizes a wide variety of carbohydrates via nonoxidative pathways, and all of these pathways have been identified, along with the associated transport systems whose genes account for almost 15% of the genome. Virulence genes associated with extracellular adherent glucan production, adhesins, acid tolerance, proteases, and putative hemolysins have been identified. Strain UA159 is naturally competent and contains all of the genes essential for competence and quorum sensing. Mobile genetic elements in the form of IS elements and transposons are prominent in the genome and include a previously uncharacterized conjugative transposon and a composite transposon containing genes for the synthesis of antibiotics of the gramicidin/bacitracin family; however, no bacteriophage genomes are present.

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          Complete genome sequence of a virulent isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

          The 2,160,837-base pair genome sequence of an isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae, a Gram-positive pathogen that causes pneumonia, bacteremia, meningitis, and otitis media, contains 2236 predicted coding regions; of these, 1440 (64%) were assigned a biological role. Approximately 5% of the genome is composed of insertion sequences that may contribute to genome rearrangements through uptake of foreign DNA. Extracellular enzyme systems for the metabolism of polysaccharides and hexosamines provide a substantial source of carbon and nitrogen for S. pneumoniae and also damage host tissues and facilitate colonization. A motif identified within the signal peptide of proteins is potentially involved in targeting these proteins to the cell surface of low-guanine/cytosine (GC) Gram-positive species. Several surface-exposed proteins that may serve as potential vaccine candidates were identified. Comparative genome hybridization with DNA arrays revealed strain differences in S. pneumoniae that could contribute to differences in virulence and antigenicity.
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            Comparative genomics of Listeria species.

            Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen with a high mortality rate that has also emerged as a paradigm for intracellular parasitism. We present and compare the genome sequences of L. monocytogenes (2,944,528 base pairs) and a nonpathogenic species, L. innocua (3,011,209 base pairs). We found a large number of predicted genes encoding surface and secreted proteins, transporters, and transcriptional regulators, consistent with the ability of both species to adapt to diverse environments. The presence of 270 L. monocytogenes and 149 L. innocua strain-specific genes (clustered in 100 and 63 islets, respectively) suggests that virulence in Listeria results from multiple gene acquisition and deletion events.
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              Whole genome sequencing of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                0027-8424
                1091-6490
                October 29 2002
                October 23 2002
                October 29 2002
                : 99
                : 22
                : 14434-14439
                10.1073/pnas.172501299
                137901
                12397186
                © 2002
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