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      Does music enhance cognitive performance in healthy older adults? The Vivaldi effect.

      Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
      Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Cognition, Humans, Memory, Music

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          Abstract

          Controversial evidence suggests that music can enhance cognitive performance. In the present study, we examined whether listening to an excerpt of Vivaldi's "Four Seasons" had a positive effect on older adults' cognitive performance in two working memory tasks. With a repeated-measures design, older adults were presented with the forward version of the digit span and phonemic fluency in classical music, white-noise and no-music conditions. Classical music significantly increased working memory performance compared with the no-music condition. In addition, this effect did not occur with white noise. The authors discuss this finding in terms of the arousal-and-mood hypothesis and the role of working memory resources in aging.

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          Music and spatial task performance.

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            Music training improves verbal but not visual memory: cross-sectional and longitudinal explorations in children.

            The hypothesis that music training can improve verbal memory was tested in children. The results showed that children with music training demonstrated better verbal but not visual memory than did their counterparts without such training. When these children were followed up after a year, those who had begun or continued music training demonstrated significant verbal memory improvement. Students who discontinued the training did not show any improvement. Contrary to the differences in verbal memory between the groups, their changes in visual memory were not significantly different. Consistent with previous findings for adults (A. S. Chan, Y. Ho, & M. Cheung, 1998), the results suggest that music training systematically affects memory processing in accordance with possible neuroanatomical modifications in the left temporal lobe.
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              Arousal, Mood, and The Mozart Effect

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                18007118
                10.1007/BF03324720

                Aged,Aged, 80 and over,Cognition,Humans,Memory,Music
                Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Cognition, Humans, Memory, Music

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